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—In this paper, we investigate a joint uplink pilot and data power allocation strategy for energy-efficient communications under pilot contamination in multi-cell multiuser massive multiple-input multiple-output (MU-Massive-MIMO) systems. Assuming the maximum-ratio combining detection and a large number of antennas at the base station, the system energy(More)
—In the current literature considering multi-cell multiuser massive multiple-input multiple-output (MU-Massive-MIMO) systems, equal uplink power allocation among users is typically assumed, which does not exploit the potential of per-user power control. By contrast, in this paper we apply multi-cell uplink power control, assuming the minimum(More)
BACKGROUND Low vitamin D levels can be associated with albuminuria, and vitamin D analogs are effective anti-proteinuric agents. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates(More)
The overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of PGC-1α in the pathogenesis of DN. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (RMCs) were incubated in normal or high glucose medium with(More)
Uplink minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) detection in multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems with multi-cell setup is investigated in this paper. We first derive a closed form lower bound on the ergodic achievable uplink rate for each user, assuming perfect channel state information available at the base station.We further analyze and(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that a microalbuminuria (MA) threshold can help predict the risk for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)_ patients. DESIGN We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4739 subjects with T2DM and a prospective study of 297 subjects with T2DM in China respectively. METHODS Clinical(More)
The increasing development of civil aviation transportation has caused serious congestion, which often results in low efficiency and potential risks of airport surface traffic system. In this paper, a new genetic encoding method different from previous ones is presented to solve the aircraft safe taxiing problems based on an optimization model with three(More)
We consider a time-division duplexing multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output system, where a so-called beamforming training (BFT) occurs prior to the downlink (DL) data transmission. The BFT process helps the users to obtain the estimates of effective channels, and thus facilitates a more reliable DL data detection compared to the conventional(More)