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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Preclinical studies and a proof-of-concept clinical study have shown that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, fingolimod, improves the clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the specific subtype of the S1PRs through which immune modulation provides protection in ICH remains unclear. In addition,(More)
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) are antioxidant agents that can activate the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and induce the expression of antioxidant proteins. Here, we evaluated(More)
We characterized a unique group of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) who carried autoantibodies of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Among the 125 NMOSD patients, 10 (8.0%) were AQP4- and MOG-ab double positive, and 14 (11.2%) were MOG-ab single positive. The double-positive patients had a(More)
Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery(More)
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is primarily an anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody-mediated, central nervous system-restricted channelopathy. Patients frequently develop central nervous system-restricted lesions even though autoantigen aquaporin 4 in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is broadly distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral(More)
A major hurdle for effective stem cell therapy is ongoing inflammation in the target organ. Reconditioning the lesion microenvironment may be an effective way to promote stem cell therapy. In this study, we showed that engineered neural stem cells (NSCs) with complement factor H-related protein 1, a complement inhibitor protein, can attenuate inflammatory(More)
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