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We found strain differences in the ability of wild Alberta Lymnaea stagnalis to form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning when L. stagnalis were collected from the wild and trained in the laboratory. Lymnaea stagnalis obtained from the Belly River watershed had an enhanced ability to form LTM compared with those from an isolated pond(More)
The ability to remember is influenced by environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. A flavanol contained in chocolate, epicatechin (Epi), has been shown to enhance long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. Combining two stressors (low-calcium pond water and crowding) blocks learning and all forms of memory; that is, this combination of(More)
The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, naturally inhabits slow flowing, shallow and stagnant environments in the northern temperate zone. Consequently, it will experience wide temperature fluctuations dependent on prevailing weather conditions. We hypothesize that periods of warming act as a thermal stressor to alter memory formation. Snails were exposed to an(More)
Stress can alter adaptive behaviours, and as well either enhance or diminish learning, memory formation and/or memory recall. We focus attention on how environmentally relevant stressors (e.g. predator detection, crowding, and low concentrations of environmental Ca(++)) alter memory formation in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We specifically look at(More)
The ability to learn and form long-term memory (LTM) can enhance an animal's fitness, for example, by allowing them to remember predators, food sources or conspecific interactions. Here we use the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to assess whether variability between natural populations (i.e., strains) in memory forming capabilities correlates with(More)
Stress alters adaptive behaviours such as learning and memory. Stressors can either enhance or diminish learning, memory formation and/or memory recall. We focus attention here on how environmentally relevant stressors alter learning, memory and forgetting in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Operant conditioning of aerial respiration causes associative(More)
Environmentally relevant stressors alter the memory-forming process in Lymnaea following operant conditioning of aerial respiration. One such stressor is heat. Previously, we found that following a 1 h heat shock, long-term memory (LTM) formation was enhanced. We also had shown that the heat stressor activates at least two heat shock proteins (HSPs): HSP40(More)
Learning and memory provide the flexibility an organism requires to respond to changing social and ecological conditions. Juvenile Lymnaea have previously been shown to have a diminished capacity to form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior. Juvenile Lymnaea, however, can form LTM following classical(More)
Mixed results with the synthetic β-adrenergic receptor blocker, propranolol, have been reported in human populations with regards to its therapeutic efficacy for PTSD treatments targeting the memory reconsolidation process. Stress alters the ability to form and maintain memory, but whether the causal neuronal mechanisms underling memory formation in PTSD(More)
We succeeded in taste avoidance conditioning with sucrose as the conditional stimulus (CS) and an electrical stimulus (∼1000V, 80μA) as the unconditional stimulus (US). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) persisting for at least one week. However, while STM was(More)