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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), ultrasound (US), and cold plasma (CP) are emerging technologies that have already found application in the food industry or related sectors. This review aims to describe the basic principles of these nonthermal technologies as well as the state of the art concerning their impact on biological(More)
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound (US) and cold plasma (CP) are emerging technologies with varying levels of industrial application within the food industry. The review will concentrate on these non-thermal processes as well as their impact on biological cells and other food constituents. Main focus will be on process(More)
High pressure combined with elevated temperatures can produce low acid, commercially sterile and shelf-stable foods. Depending on the temperature and pressure levels applied, bacterial endospores pass through different pathways, which can lead to a pressure-induced germination or inactivation. Regardless of the pathway, Bacillus endospores first release(More)
The intention of this study was to investigate the inactivation of endospores by a combined thermal and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment. Therefore, self-cultivated spores of Bacillus subtilis and commercial Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with certified heat resistance were utilized. Spores of both strains were suspended in saline water (5.3 mS(More)
It is well known that spore germination and inactivation can be achieved within a broad temperature and pressure range. The existing literature, however, reports contradictory results concerning the effectiveness of different pressure-temperature combinations and the underlying inactivation mechanism(s). Much of the published kinetic data are prone to error(More)
Much research has been conducted to comprehend the mechanisms of high pressure (HP) inactivation of spores in aqueous systems but for food model systems these information are scarce. In these systems spores can interact with ingredients which then could possibly lead to retarded or reduced inactivation, which can cause a problem for the sterilization(More)
Bacillus and Clostridium species form spores, which pose a challenge to the food industry due to their ubiquitous nature and extreme resistance. Pressurization at <300 MPa triggers spore germination by activating germination receptors (GRs), while pressurization at >300 MPa likely triggers germination by opening dipicolinic acid (DPA) channels present in(More)
This study investigated the inactivation efficiency of cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on Bacillus subtilis endospores dependent on the used feed gas composition and on the surface, the endospores were attached on. Glass petri-dishes, glass beads, and peppercorns were inoculated with the same endospore density and treated with a radio frequency(More)
Bacterial spores are a major concern for food safety due to their high resistance to conventional preservation hurdles. Innovative hurdles can trigger bacterial spore germination or inactivate them. In this work, Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore high pressure (HP) germination and inactivation mechanisms were investigated by in situ infrared spectroscopy(More)