Kai R. Konrad

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The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) reports on the water status of the plant and induces stomatal closure. Guard cell anion channels play a central role in this response, because they mediate anion efflux, and in turn, cause a depolarization-induced K+ release. We recorded early steps in ABA signaling, introducing multibarreled microelectrodes in guard(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NAD(P)H oxidases play a central role in plant stress responses and development. To better understand the function of NAD(P)H oxidases in plant development, we characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana NAD(P)H oxidases RBOHH and RBOHJ. Both proteins were specifically expressed in pollen and dynamically targeted to(More)
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1-6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a(More)
This chapter describes the procedure for globally analyzing fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) data for the observation and quantification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in live plant cells. The procedure is illustrated by means of a case study, for which plant protoplasts were transfected with different visible fluorescent proteins and(More)
The plant membrane potential reports on the activity of electrogenic plasma membrane transport processes. The membrane potential is widely used to report for early events associated with changes in light regime, hormone action or pathogen attacks. The membrane potentials of guard cells can be precisely measured with microelectrodes, but this technique is(More)
We review the recent advances on Ca(2+) in tip-growing cells, with a special focus on pollen tubes. New genes for Ca(2+) pumps, channels and sensing proteins have been recently described, with special emphasis on cyclic nucleotide gated channels (CNGCs) and glutamate receptor-like channels (GLRs). We also review the current state of knowledge in what(More)
Four genes of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) monosaccharide transporter-like superfamily share significant homology with transporter genes previously identified in the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a model system for studies on salt tolerance of higher plants. These ice plant transporters had been discussed as tonoplast proteins(More)
Drought induces stomatal closure, a response that is associated with the activation of plasma membrane anion channels in guard cells, by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In several species, this response is associated with changes in the cytoplasmic free Ca concentration. In Vicia faba, however, guard cell anion channels activate in a Ca-independent(More)
Drought induces stomatal closure, a response that is associated with the activation of plasma membrane anion channels in guard cells, by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In several species, this response is associated with changes in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. In Vicia faba, however, guard cell anion channels activate in a(More)
Stomatal openings can be stimulated by light through two signalling pathways. The first pathway is blue light specific and involves phototropins, while the second pathway mediates a response to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). This second pathway was studied with the use of albino Vicia faba plants and variegated leaves of Chlorophytum comosum.(More)