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Understanding and predicting dynamic change of algae population in freshwater reservoirs is particularly important, as algae-releasing cyanotoxins are carcinogens that would affect the health of public. However, the high complex nonlinearity of water variables and their interactions makes it difficult in modeling its growth. Recently, extreme learning(More)
Multilayer perceptron (MLP), normally trained by the offline backpropagation algorithm, could not adapt to the changing air quality system and subsequently underperforms. To improve this, the extended Kalman filter is adopted into the learning algorithm to build a time-varying multilayer perceptron (TVMLP) in this study. Application of the TVMLP to model(More)
Review on the annual PM10 concentrations over a 10-year period shows that Macau is subjected to severe fine particulate pollution. Investigations of its variation in monthly and daily time scales with the local meteorological records reveal further details. It is found that a distinct feature of the Asian monsoon climates, the changes of wind direction,(More)
The Macau storage reservoir (MSR) has experienced algal blooms in recent years, with high levels of Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis and detectable concentrations of cyanotoxins. To analyze the cyanotoxin-producing genotypes and relate the corresponding cyanotoxins to the water quality parameters, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was(More)
Algae-releasing cyanotoxins are cancer-causing and very harmful to the human being. Therefore, it is of great significance to model how the algae population dynamically changes in freshwater reservoirs. But the practical modeling is very difficult because water variables and their internal mechanism are very complicated and non-linear. So, in order to(More)
The impact of a fully developed saline current with a vertically erected circular cylinder and its subsequent runup and rundown on the cylinder were investigated experimentally with the Laser Induced Fluorescence technique. Detailed behaviors of the entire process were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Time history of the current's highest position(More)
Monitoring of cyanobacteria and their toxins are traditionally conducted by cell counting, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) determination and cyanotoxin measurements, respectively. These methods are tedious, costly, time consuming, and insensitive to rapid changes in water quality and cyanobacterial abundance. We have applied and tested an online phycocyanin (PC)(More)
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