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The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (acute myocardial infarction [AMI]) requires detection of increasing or decreasing cardiac biomarkers (preferably cardiac troponin) with >or=1 value >99(th) percentile, together with either clinical symptoms, new ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or typical imaging findings indicative of myocardial(More)
BACKGROUND Despite improved laboratory assays for cardiac markers and a revised standard for definition of myocardial infarction (AMI), early detection of coronary ischemia in unselected patients with chest pain remains a difficult challenge. METHODS Rapid measurements of troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and myoglobin were performed in 197(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is widely recommended for risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the utility of this score for long-term risk prediction in unselected patients with acute chest pain and whether it might be improved by the integration(More)
BACKGROUND Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is emerging as a powerful risk indicator in both cardiovascular disease patients and community-dwelling individuals. We investigated GDF-15 concentrations and their changes over 5 years in elderly individuals from the community, together with the underlying conditions and prognostic implications of these(More)
The levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are closely related to cardiac abnormalities and adverse outcomes in the general population. However, little is known about the course of NT-proBNP levels over time, the underlying conditions, and the prognostic effect of changes. To investigate these issues, we measured the NT-proBNP(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate factors influencing the 99th percentile for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) when this cutoff value is established on a highly sensitive assay, and to compare the value of this cutoff to that of lower cutoffs in the prognostic assessment of patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS We used the recently(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, any troponin elevation is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. However, the prevalence and prognostic importance of persistent troponin elevation in stabilized patients after an episode of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome are unknown and were therefore(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to assess changes in troponin levels, underlying conditions, and the prognostic implications in elderly subjects from the community. BACKGROUND Cardiac troponin levels are often detectable in community dwellers when sensitive assays are applied. However, information on the course of troponin levels over time is limited. (More)
AIMS To evaluate the prevalence of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevation in an elderly community population and the association of cTnI levels with cardiovascular risk factors, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, cardiac performance, and areas indicative of infarcted myocardium identified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS cTnI(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which a perpetuated activation of NFkappaB via the RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products)-MAPK signalling pathway may play an important pathogenetic role. As recently S100 proteins have been identified as ligands of RAGE, we sought to determine the effects of the proinflammatory(More)