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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Transcription Factor GATA4 Inhibits Doxorubicin-induced Autophagy and Cardiomyocyte Death*
Investigation of the ability of GATA4 to inhibit autophagy as a potential mechanism underlying its protection against DOX toxicity in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes suggests activation of Autophagy mediates DOX cardiotoxicity, and preservation of Gata4 attenuates DOXCardiomyocyte death by inhibitingAutophagy through modulation of the expression of Bcl2 and autophagic-related genes.
Regulation of Akt/PKB activity by P21-activated kinase in cardiomyocytes.
This work reports Pak1 as a potential PDK2 that is essential for Akt activity in cardiomyocytes and connects two important regulators of cellular physiological functions and provides a potential mechanism for Pak1 signaling in carduomyocytes.
Atg29 phosphorylation regulates coordination of the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex with the Atg11 scaffold during autophagy initiation
It is demonstrated that Atg29 is a phosphorylated protein and that this modification is critical to its function; alanine substitution at the phosphorylation sites blocks its interaction with the scaffold protein Atg11 and its ability to facilitate assembly of the PAS.
Potential function for the Huntingtin protein as a scaffold for selective autophagy
Significance The normal function of the Huntingtin (HTT) protein is emerging. Here we report that selective autophagy requires an intact HTT protein in Drosophila and mouse CNS. We describe
A genomic screen for yeast mutants defective in selective mitochondria autophagy.
A genome-wide yeast mutant screen forMitophagy-defective strains identified 32 mutants with a block in mitophagy, in addition to the known autophagic-related (ATG) gene mutants, and characterized one of these mutants, ylr356wDelta that corresponds to a gene whose function has not been identified.
The scaffold protein Atg11 recruits fission machinery to drive selective mitochondria degradation by autophagy.
It is reported that mitochondrial fission is important for the progression of mitophagy and this data establish a paradigm for selective organelle degradation.
Two MAPK-signaling pathways are required for mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The MAP kinase Slt2 is required for both mitophagy and pexophagy, whereas the MAP kinase Hog1 acts specifically in mitophagy.
Noncanonical E2 recruitment by the autophagy E1 revealed by Atg7–Atg3 and Atg7–Atg10 structures
The data suggest that common principles underlie conjugation in both noncanonical and canonical UBL cascades, whereby flexibly tethered E1 domains recruit E2s through surfaces remote from their active sites to juxtapose the E1 and E2 catalytic cysteines.
Diminished GATA4 Protein Levels Contribute to Hyperglycemia-induced Cardiomyocyte Injury*
Increased GATA4 protein degradation may be an important mechanism that contributes to hyperglycemic cardiotoxicity.