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CONTEXT No large-scale study has investigated the impact of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) on the outcome of standard short-course chemotherapy under routine countrywide TB control program conditions in the World Health Organization's (WHO) directly observed treatment short-course strategy for TB control. OBJECTIVE To assess the results of(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance has been gathering data since 1994. This study provides the latest data on the extent of drug resistance worldwide. METHODS Data for drug susceptibility were gathered from 90 726 patients in 83 countries and territories between 2002 and 2007. Standardised collection of results enabled(More)
We used spoligotyping to study 500 randomly selected pretreatment Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains isolated in Hong Kong during the 2 year period 1998-9. It was found that amongst all MTB strains studied, the 'Beijing' genotype strains were highly prevalent in our geographic area, representing about 70% of the isolates. Unlike previous observations(More)
PulseNet is a network that utilizes standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols with the purpose of conducting laboratory-based surveillance of foodborne pathogens. PulseNet standardized PFGE protocols are subject to rigorous testing during the developmental phase and careful evaluation during a validation process assessing its robustness(More)
Chemokines play a major role in leukocyte recruitment during the formation of tuberculous granulomas. We studied the association between genetic polymorphisms of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and(More)
The early bactericidal activities (EBAs) of 300 mg isoniazid, 18.5 mg isoniazid, 600 mg rifampicin and 800 mg ofloxacin given daily to 262 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, Nairobi, Madras and Hong Kong were measured by counting cfu and total acid-fast bacilli in sputum collections taken pre-treatment (S1), at 2 days (S3)(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat in the 21st century. Traditional studies of the disease are focused on the single pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent studies have revealed associations of some diseases with an imbalance in the microbial community. Characterization of the TB microbiota could allow a better understanding of the(More)
Two hundred twenty isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 collected from 1994 to 2002 in Hong Kong were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal DNAs from all V. cholerae isolates in agarose plugs were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI, resulting in 20 to 27 bands. Sixty distinctive PFGE patterns in the range of 10 to 300 kb(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable DST against second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is crucial for the management of the increasing burden of patients affected by multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. METHODS This study utilizes 252 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from five countries (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Korea, Latvia,(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies showed that activation of CXCL-10 and other chemokines were prominent in many infectious diseases. These chemokines are components of innate immune response to respiratory tract pathogens. We examined the promoter variants of CXCL-10 and their role in predisposition to tuberculosis (TB). METHODS The promoter 1.8 kb of CXCL-10(More)