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CONTEXT No large-scale study has investigated the impact of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) on the outcome of standard short-course chemotherapy under routine countrywide TB control program conditions in the World Health Organization's (WHO) directly observed treatment short-course strategy for TB control. OBJECTIVE To assess the results of(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance has been gathering data since 1994. This study provides the latest data on the extent of drug resistance worldwide. METHODS Data for drug susceptibility were gathered from 90 726 patients in 83 countries and territories between 2002 and 2007. Standardised collection of results enabled(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)
The frequency of typical and atypical Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was determined in the Netherlands; Vietnam; and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China. The strains' associations with drug resistance, M. bovis BCG vaccination, and patient characteristics were assessed. BCG vaccination may have positively(More)
At the time of the writing of this book, tuberculosis still poses an enormous health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-income countries. Progress has been made with the implementation of effective control strategies; many countries, however, still fail to sufficiently recognise the importance and priority of good tuberculosis control.(More)
Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat in the 21st century. Traditional studies of the disease are focused on the single pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent studies have revealed associations of some diseases with an imbalance in the microbial community. Characterization of the TB microbiota could allow a better understanding of the(More)
BACKGROUND Early and effective detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), particularly in smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), is a priority for global TB control. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification with a procedure for ultra rapid DNA extraction (PURE-LAMP) can detect TB in sputum samples rapidly and with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the(More)
A GWAS study has reported that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with predisposition to tuberculosis (TB) in African populations. These two loci represented the long-waited GWAS hits for TB susceptibility. To determine whether these two SNPs are associated with TB in Chinese population, we attempted an replication in a cohort of(More)
Multidrug-resistant (MDR)- tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB reportedly lead to increased household transmission. This is a retrospective cohort study of active TB occurring among household contacts exposed to MDR-TB. Of 704 contacts in 246 households, initial screening identified 12 (1.7%) TB cases (prevalent cases) and 17 (2.4%)(More)