Kai M. Wohlfarth

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Although muscle-relaxant doses of botulinum A toxin (BoNT/A) are generally lower than doses stimulating the immune system, specific antibodies are raised in a substantial number of patients. As a rule, this necessitates the termination of treatment. Therefore, a reliable determination of specific anti-BoNT/A antibodies is helpful and we introduced, for this(More)
Attenuated behavioral sensitivity to neurosteroids has been reported for mice deficient in the GABA(A) receptor delta subunit. We therefore investigated potential subunit-specific neurosteroid pharmacology of the following GABA(A) receptor isoforms in a transient expression system: alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha1beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) were applied before and 3 s after onset of vibration (0.5 mm, 80 Hz) of the right extensor carpi radialis muscle in 5 healthy subjects. Vibration induced significant augmentation and latency shortening of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS, but not TES. This provides(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) consisting of polyanionic chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and other extracellular matrix components create an exceptional microenvironment around certain types of neurons. In rat neocortex, three types of PNs can be distinguished after staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) by their different morphological(More)
Aside from temporary chemodenervation of skeletal muscle and potential anti-inflammatory effects, a genuine peripheral antinociceptive effect of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT/A) has been suspected. To evaluate the effect of BoNT/A on cutaneous nociception in humans, 50 healthy volunteers received subcutaneous injections of 100 mouse units (MU) BoNT/A(More)
OBJECTIVES As the indications and duration of treatment of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) increase, so do reports of patients who fail therapy after initially responding well. Although a loss of efficacy is commonly thought to be associated with neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), this relationship is not strongly correlated, and other factors may play a(More)
Attenuated behavioral sensitivity to neurosteroids has been reported for mice deficient in the GABAA receptor subunit. We therefore investigated potential subunit-specific neurosteroid pharmacology of the following GABAA receptor isoforms in a transient expression system: 1 3 2L, 1 3 , 6 3 2L, and 6 3 . Potentiation of submaximal GABAA receptor currents by(More)
BACKGROUND The units of different preparations of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) have different potencies, and dosing recommendations for each product are not interchangeable. Historically, there has been debate concerning the dose-equivalence ratio that should be used in clinical practice. METHODS Published evidence was considered to establish an(More)
OBJECTIVE Although the therapeutic effects of botulinum toxin A can be explained by its action at the neuromuscular junction, central or more proximal effects have also been discussed. METHODS Eleven patients with torticollis spasmodicus and 3 patients with writer's cramp were studied before and 1 and 5 weeks after the first treatment with botulinum(More)
We investigated the efficacies and potencies of two commercial preparations of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNt/A) reputed to differ in potency. Tests were conducted in vitro using the mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm which is an approved tool for measuring clostridial toxicity. In addition, in a double-blind trial on volunteers, varying amounts of one(More)