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The failure of axons to regenerate is a major obstacle for functional recovery after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Removing extracellular inhibitory molecules results in limited axon regeneration in vivo. To test for the role of intrinsic impediments to axon regrowth, we analyzed cell growth control genes using a virus-assisted in vivo conditional(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present a barrier to axon regeneration. However, no specific receptor for the inhibitory effect of CSPGs has been identified. We showed that a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPsigma, binds with high affinity to neural CSPGs. Binding involves the chondroitin sulfate chains and a specific site on the(More)
Despite the essential role of the corticospinal tract (CST) in controlling voluntary movements, successful regeneration of large numbers of injured CST axons beyond a spinal cord lesion has never been achieved. We found that PTEN/mTOR are critical for controlling the regenerative capacity of mouse corticospinal neurons. After development, the regrowth(More)
Failure of axon regeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injuries results in permanent functional deficits. Numerous studies in the past suggested that blocking extracellular inhibitory influences alone is insufficient to allow the majority of injured axons to regenerate, pointing to the importance of revisiting the hypothesis that diminished(More)
Grain filling is an intensive transportation process regulated by soil drying and plant hormones. This study investigated how the interaction between abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene is involved in mediating the effects of soil drying on grain filling in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two wheat cultivars, cv. Yangmai 6 and cv. Yangmai 11, were field-grown, and(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the interaction between abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in mediating the post-anthesis development of spikelets in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice genotypes were field-grown, and the changes of ABA, ethylene, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) levels in spikelets during(More)
The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has emerged as an effective tool for sequence-specific gene knockout through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), but it remains inefficient for precise editing of genome sequences. Here we develop a reporter-based screening approach for high-throughput identification of chemical compounds that can modulate precise genome(More)
How axon regeneration is controlled in both PNS and CNS remains elusive. Mechanistic studies of axon growth during development and axon regeneration after injury reveal the PTEN dependent molecular mechanism as a commonality. This pathway could impact the processes occurring in the neuronal soma, such as mTOR-regulated protein translation, and in the axons,(More)
As the biggest developing country, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its need for huge amounts of energy resources, especially for liquid fuel. The Chinese government has recently started a bioethanol project, and has produced about 1 million tons of ethanol fuel from corn and wheat in 2005. As it has the largest population in the world and(More)
Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is a myelin component that has been shown in vitro to inhibit neurite outgrowth by binding to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1)/Lingo-1/Taj (TROY)/p75 receptor complex to activate the RhoA pathway. To investigate the effects of OMgp on axon regeneration in vivo, OMgp(-/-) mice on a mixed 129/Sv/C57BL/6 (129BL6) or a(More)