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The formation of protein complexes between phosphorylated R-Smads and Smad4 is a central event in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. We have determined the crystal structure of two R-Smad/Smad4 complexes, Smad3/Smad4 to 2.5 angstroms, and Smad2/Smad4 to 2.7 angstroms. Both complexes are heterotrimers, comprising two phosphorylated R-Smad subunits and one Smad4(More)
This paper describes some tools to support formal methods, and conversely some formal methods for developing such tools. We focus on distributed cooperative proving over the web. Our tools include a proof editor/assistant, servers for remote proof execution, a distributed truth protocol, an editor generator, and a new method for interface design called(More)
VX-950 is a potent, selective, peptidomimetic inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A serine protease, and it demonstrated excellent antiviral activity both in genotype 1b HCV replicon cells (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 354 nM) and in human fetal hepatocytes infected with genotype 1a HCV-positive patient sera (IC50 = 280 nM). VX-950 forms(More)
The current mechanism for monitoring toxicity symptoms in cancer trials depends on a complex paper-based process. Electronic collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may be more efficient and accurate. An online PRO platform was created including a simple data entry interface, real-time report generation, and an alert system to e-mail clinicians when(More)
We have used a structure-based drug design approach to identify small molecule inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3.4A protease as potential candidates for new anti-HCV therapies. VX-950 is a potent NS3.4A protease inhibitor that was recently selected as a clinical development candidate for hepatitis C treatment. In this report, we describe in(More)
Host factor pathways are known to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication in human liver cells. To search for novel host factor proteins required for HCV replication, we screened a subgenomic genotype 1b replicon cell line (Luc-1b) with a kinome and druggable collection of 20,779 siRNAs. We identified and validated several enzymes(More)
Transcriptional activation of interferon beta (IFN-beta), an antiviral cytokine, requires the assembly of IRF-3 and CBP/p300 at the promoter region of the IFN-beta gene. The crystal structure of IRF-3 in complex with CBP reveals that CBP interacts with a hydrophobic surface on IRF-3, which in latent IRF-3 is covered by its autoinhibitory elements. This(More)
Circular coinductive rewriting is a new method for proving behavioral properties, that combines behavioral rewriting with circular coinduction. This method is implemented in our new BOBJ behavioral specification and computation system, which is used in examples throughout this paper. These examples demonstrate the surprising power of circular coinductive(More)
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are essential in the innate immune response and other physiological processes. Activation of these proteins in the cytoplasm is triggered by phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in a C-terminal autoinhibitory region, which stimulates dimerization, transport into the nucleus, assembly with the coactivator(More)
Host factors involved in viral replication are potentially attractive antiviral targets that are complementary to specific inhibitors of viral enzymes, since resistant mutations against the latter are likely to emerge during long-term treatment. It has been reported recently that cyclosporine, which binds to a family of cellular proteins, cyclophilins,(More)