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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the adult brain, and it exerts its fast hyperpolarizing effect through activation of anion (predominantly Cl-)-permeant GABA(A) receptors. However, during early neuronal development, GABA(A)-receptor-mediated responses are often depolarizing, which may be a key factor in the control of(More)
Human cortical activity has been intensively examined at frequencies ranging from 0.5 Hz to several hundred Hz. Recent studies have, however, reported also infraslow fluctuations in neuronal population activity, magnitude of electroencephalographic oscillations, discrete sleep events, as well as in the occurrence of interictal events. Here we use direct(More)
GABA-mediated fast-hyperpolarizing inhibition depends on extrusion of chloride by the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2. Here we show that sustained interictal-like activity in hippocampal slices downregulates KCC2 mRNA and protein expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which leads to a reduced capacity for neuronal Cl- extrusion. This effect is(More)
Recent years have witnessed a steep increase in studies on the diverse roles of neuronal cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs). The versatility of CCC gene transcription, posttranslational modification, and trafficking are on par with what is known about ion channels. The cell-specific and subcellular expression patterns of different CCC isoforms have a key(More)
Biphasic GABAA-mediated postsynaptic responses can be readily evoked in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices by high-frequency stimulus (HFS) trains in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. In the present experiments with sharp microelectrodes, whole-cell techniques, and K+-selective microelectrodes, an HFS train (40 pulses(More)
Synchronization of neuronal activity, often associated with network oscillations, is thought to provide a means for integrating anatomically distributed processing in the brain. Neuronal processing, however, involves simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. The mechanisms involved in the integration of such spectrally distributed processing(More)
Pathophysiological activity and various kinds of traumatic insults are known to have deleterious long-term effects on neuronal Cl- regulation, which can lead to a suppression of fast postsynaptic GABAergic responses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases neuronal excitability through a conjunction of mechanisms that include regulation of the(More)
Electrical signaling in neurons is based on the operation of plasmalemmal ion pumps and carriers that establish transmembrane ion gradients, and on the operation of ion channels that generate current and voltage responses by dissipating these gradients. Although both voltage- and ligand-gated channels are being extensively studied, the central role of ion(More)
Changes in chloride (Cl-) homeostasis may be involved in the generation of some epileptic activities. In this study, we asked whether Cl- homeostasis, and thus GABAergic signaling, is altered in tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Slices prepared from this human tissue generated a spontaneous(More)