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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and catalyzes the degradation of pro-oxidant heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and bilirubin. Intense HO-1 immunostaining in the Parkinsonian brain is demonstrated, indicating that HO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinsonism. We here locally injected adenovirus containing(More)
The use of an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) with focused ultrasound sonication has the potential to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) noninvasively and reversibly at target locations. This study investigated the effects of UCA dose and ultrasound pressure on BBB disruption. Sonications were applied at 1 MHz with a burst length of 10 ms, a 1% duty(More)
We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA), a factor highly expressed in spinal cord, rapidly and specifically enhances the spontaneous acetylcholine release at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus cell culture, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We have now further investigated the underlying mechanisms that are involved in RA-induced(More)
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important factors that induce neurodegeneration in age-related neurological disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the enzyme responsible for catalysing the synthesis of leukotriene or 5-HETE from arachidonic acid. 5-LOX is expressed in the central nervous system and may cause neurodegenerative disease. In this(More)
The permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) for albumin can be enhanced by focused ultrasound (FUS) in a targeted region when this is applied in the presence of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). In this study, we demonstrate that, using this noninvasive treatment, Evans Blue (EB) extravasation can be enhanced by repeated sonication. Sonications were(More)
Mutation in the human PTEN-induced protein kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is responsible for the second most common form of recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We have identified a single heterozygous PINK1 mutation, P209A, from a cohort of 68 patients with early onset PD. From age 31, this patient developed an asymmetric bradykinesia with rigidity that was L-DOPA(More)
12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is a non-haeme iron-containing dioxygenase that forms 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) or 15(S)-HETE. Several biological mediators including cytokines, growth factors and lipid metabolites released during tumour cell-endothelial cell adhesion are associated with malignant tumour progression. Here we found that(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene causes an autosomal recessive form of PD. However, the etiology related to PINK1 is still not clear. Here, we examined the effect of PINK1 on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction in SH-SY5Y(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, its crossing of blood-brain barrier is limited. Focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication with microbubbles (MBs) can effectively open blood-brain barrier to boost the vascular permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of(More)
The mechanism of the action of beta-bungarotoxin (beta-BuTx) in the facilitation of spontaneous transmitter release at neuromuscular synapse was investigated in Xenopus cell culture using whole-cell patch clamp recording. Exposure of the culture to beta-BuTx dose-dependently enhances the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs). Buffering the rise(More)