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Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. M. pudica does not perform merely simple movements, but exhibits a variety of movements that quickly change depending on the type of stimuli. Previous studies have investigated the motile mechanism of the plants from a biochemical perspective. However, an(More)
Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments.(More)
Cryo electron tomography is the only imaging modality that can capture individual cellular structures in situ at nanometer resolution. By using subtomogram averaging, a technique for simultaneous alignment and clustering, high-resolution reconstructions of macromolecules can often be achieved. Two main challenges of subtomogram averaging are a low SNR and(More)
To extend transmission reach of a DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) service, it is crucial to detect far-end signals effectively among other undesired signals. One of them is the echo whose level is very dependent on how well a hybrid is matched to the telephone line characteristic impedance which varies significantly depending on frequency and the transmission(More)
Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels have been intensively studied because of their potential applications in drug delivery, cell culture, and actuator design. Although hydrogels with directed unidirectional response, i.e. capable of bending actuated by different chemical components reaction in response to several stimuli including water and electric fields, these(More)
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