Kah Fai Leong

Learn More
In tissue engineering, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix or scaffold is required to accommodate mammalian cells and guide their growth and tissue regeneration in three dimensions. However, existing three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering proved less than ideal for actual applications, not only because they lack mechanical strength,(More)
In tissue engineering (TE), temporary three-dimensional scaffolds are essential to guide cell proliferation and to maintain native phenotypes in regenerating biologic tissues or organs. To create the scaffolds, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are emerging as fabrication techniques of choice as they are capable of overcoming many of the limitations(More)
Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are becoming more popular for fabricating tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds owing to their advantages over conventional methods, such as the ability to fabricate scaffolds with predetermined interconnected networks without the use of organic solvents. A versatile RP technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), offers good(More)
Most tissue engineering (TE) strategies for creating functional replacement tissues or organs rely on the application of temporary three-dimensional scaffolds to guide the proliferation and spread of seeded cells in vitro and in vivo. The characteristics of TE scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds. This paper identifies(More)
The ability to use biological substitutes to repair or replace damaged tissues lead to the development of Tissue Engineering (TE), a field that is growing in scope and importance within biomedical engineering. Anchorage dependent cell types often rely on the use of temporary three-dimensional scaffolds to guide cell proliferation. Computer-controlled(More)
The ability to have precise control over porosity, scaffold shape, and internal pore architecture is critical in tissue engineering. For anchorage-dependent cells, the presence of three-dimensional scaffolds with interconnected pore networks is crucial to aid in the proliferation and reorganization of cells. This research explored the potential of rapid(More)
The growing interest in scaffold-guided tissue engineering (TE) to guide and support cell proliferation in the repair and replacement of craniofacial and joint defects gave rise to the quest for a precise technique to create such scaffolds. Conventional manual-based fabrication techniques have several limitations such as the lack of reproducibility and(More)
Tissue Engineering (TE) aims to create biological substitutes to repair or replace failing organs or tissues due to trauma or ageing. One of the more promising approaches in TE is to grow cells on biodegradable scaffolds, which act as temporary supports for the cells to attach, proliferate and differentiate; after which the scaffold will degrade, leaving(More)
An advanced manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), was utilized to fabricate a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold designed with an automated algorithm in a parametric library system named the "computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds" (CASTS). Tensile stiffness of the sintered PCL strut was in the range of 0.43+/-0.15MPa when a(More)
An important requirement for a bone tissue engineering scaffold is a stiffness gradient that mimics that of native bone. Such scaffolds can be achieved by controlling their structure and porosity and are termed functionally graded scaffolds (FGS). Currently, the main challenges in FGS fabrication include the iterative and tedious design process as well as a(More)