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Recent studies have shown that frontoparietal cortices and interconnecting regions in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are related to motor skill learning. We propose that motor skill learning occurs independently and in different coordinates in two sets of loop circuits: cortex-basal ganglia and cortex-cerebellum. This architecture accounts for the(More)
Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an(More)
Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area, frontal eye field, and superior colliculus exhibit a pattern of activity known as remapping. When a salient visual stimulus is presented shortly before a saccade, the representation of that stimulus is updated, or remapped, at the time of the eye movement. This updating is presumably based on a corollary discharge(More)
Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects(More)
It has been suggested on the basis of previous studies involving functional MRI (fMRI) and single-neuron recording that neurons of the supplementary eye field (SEF) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) monitor conflict. To test this idea, we carried out microelectrode recording in monkeys performing a color-conditional eye movement task in which red and(More)
The dopamine system has been thought to play a central role in guiding behavior based on rewards. Recent pharmacological studies suggest that another monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, is also involved in reward processing. To elucidate the functional relationship between serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons, we performed single-unit recording in the(More)
We present a new decision-making model that can account for trial-by-trial variability induced by a process ("pre-process") that occurs before an explicit sensory signal specifying a later motor response. A process after explicit sensory signals, referred to herein as the "post-process", has been investigated by a variety of so-called rise-to-threshold(More)
Complex motor skill often consists of a fixed sequence of movements. Recent studies show that a stereotyped temporal pattern or rhythm emerges as we learn to perform a motor sequence. This is because the sequence is reorganized during learning as serial chunks of movements in both a sequence-specific and subject-specific manner. On the basis of human(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus and its serotonin-releasing neurons are thought to regulate motivation and reward-seeking. These neurons are known to be active during motivated behavior, but the underlying principles that govern their activity are unknown. Here we show that a group of dorsal raphe neurons encode behavioral tasks in a systematic manner, tracking(More)
Expected reward impacts behavior and neuronal activity in brain areas involved in sensorimotor processes. However, where and how reward signals affect sensorimotor signals is unclear. Here, we show evidence that reward-dependent modulation of behavior depends on normal dopamine transmission in the striatum. Monkeys performed a visually guided saccade task(More)