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Recent studies have shown that frontoparietal cortices and interconnecting regions in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are related to motor skill learning. We propose that motor skill learning occurs independently and in different coordinates in two sets of loop circuits: cortex-basal ganglia and cortex-cerebellum. This architecture accounts for the(More)
Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an(More)
Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area, frontal eye field, and superior colliculus exhibit a pattern of activity known as remapping. When a salient visual stimulus is presented shortly before a saccade, the representation of that stimulus is updated, or remapped, at the time of the eye movement. This updating is presumably based on a corollary discharge(More)
To study the role of medial frontal cortex in learning and memory of sequential procedures, we examined neuronal activity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and supplementary motor area (SMA) while monkeys (n = 2) performed a sequential button press task, "2 x 5 task." In this paradigm, 2 of 16 (4 x 4 matrix) light-emitting diode buttons (called(More)
Remarkable human performance, such as playing the violin, is often based on motor skills that, once acquired, are retained for a long time. To examine how motor skills are retained, we trained monkeys and humans extensively to perform many visuomotor sequences and examined their performance after a long retention period of up to 18 months. For both monkeys(More)
Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus and its serotonin-releasing neurons are thought to regulate motivation and reward-seeking. These neurons are known to be active during motivated behavior, but the underlying principles that govern their activity are unknown. Here we show that a group of dorsal raphe neurons encode behavioral tasks in a systematic manner, tracking(More)
The dopamine system has been thought to play a central role in guiding behavior based on rewards. Recent pharmacological studies suggest that another monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, is also involved in reward processing. To elucidate the functional relationship between serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons, we performed single-unit recording in the(More)
Area V3A is an extrastriate visual area that provides a major input to parietal cortex. To identify the sensory, saccade-related, and cognitive signals carried by V3A neurons, we recorded from single units in alert monkeys during performance of fixation and memory guided saccade tasks. We found that visual responses to stationary stimuli in area V3A were(More)