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BACKGROUND Continuous spinal anaesthesia with spinal catheters allows incremental dosing of local anaesthetic and, consequently, less haemodynamic changes. However, little is known about the required doses. Therefore, we designed a study to assess the minimum effective local anaesthetic dose (MLAD) of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in this context. (More)
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective and potent α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist registered for sedation of patients in intensive care units. There is little information on factors possibly affecting its pharmacokinetics during long drug infusions in critically ill patients. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in critically ill(More)
We have studied the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil together with propofol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Sixty patients (age 40-73 yr, 56 male) were assigned randomly to receive alfentanil, fentanyl or sufentanil and propofol. Plasma concentrations of these drugs and times(More)
BACKGROUND Oxycodone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist, the global use of which has increased vigorously during the past decade. The pharmacokinetic data of oxycodone available for elderly are limited, and there appear to be only little data on the population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone. METHODS We analysed 1272 plasma oxycodone samples of 77 individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine is a potent and selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist used for perioperative and intensive care sedation with certain beneficial qualities. However, based on preclinical observations, it might inhibit gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit, which could result in unwanted effects in intensive care patients. This study evaluated(More)
The pharmacokinetics of an i.v. bolus of propofol 2 mg kg-1 were studied in 10 uraemic patients undergoing renal transplantation and in seven healthy controls matched for age, weight and duration of anaesthesia. Haemodynamic changes during induction of anaesthesia were recorded in the uraemic and in 10 healthy control patients. Pharmacokinetic variables(More)
A control algorithm for the closed-loop control of atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade based on pharmacokinetic-dynamic model-based adaptive feedback is described. Mean offset from setpoint at 90% neuromuscular block was 0.04% and the mean standard deviation from mean neuromuscular block was 1.9%. The mean average atracurium requirement was 0.37(More)
We studied seven healthy volunteers given itraconazole 200 mg orally or placebo, once daily for 4 days, in a crossover study. On day 4, racemic bupivacaine 0.3 mg kg-1 was given i.v. over 60 min and venous plasma samples were collected for 23 h. Plasma concentrations of R- and S-bupivacaine, itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole were measured. Itraconazole(More)
A computerized infusion system was used to determine mivacurium infusion requirements to maintain 95% and 50% neuromuscular block in 15 infants less than 1 yr of age. Neuromuscular block was measured by adductor pollicis EMG and anaesthesia maintained with 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and alfentanil 50-100 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Neuromuscular block was(More)