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The variation in sequence and length in the C-terminal region among members of the unique PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a likely source of antigenic variation, giving rise to the speculation that these protein families could be immunologically important. Based on in silico analysis, we selected a(More)
SETTING Hyderabad, India. OBJECTIVE To determine whether private practitioners and the government can collaborate with a nongovernmental intermediary to implement DOTS effectively. DESIGN A non-profit hospital provided DOTS services to a population of 100000 for 3 years, then expanded coverage to 500000 in October 1998. A hospital physician visited all(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of the Public-Private Mix DOTS (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control in India. METHODS We collected data on the costs and effects of pilot PPM-DOTS projects in Delhi and Hyderabad using documentary data and interviews. The cost of PPM-DOTS was compared with public sector DOTS (i.e. DOTS(More)
MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells are important for the generation of protective immune responses in MTB infection. CD8+ CTL (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte)-derived IFN-g may be especially important both for cells lacking MHC class II molecules, e.g. in the lung and for macrophages where mycobacteria can evade recognition during chronic infection by sequestering(More)
The effector mechanisms of BCG protection were examined 5-7 years after vaccination. The in vitro lymphoproliferation, following stimulation with tuberculin, in normal, (A) vaccinated and (B) unvaccinated children and children with tuberculosis (C), were assayed. The mean stimulation index (SI) of lymphocyte transformation in normal subjects were(More)
Th1 and Th2 cytokines play key role in protection from and pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection and their dynamic changes may predict clinical outcome of the patient. Patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a poorer cellular immune response to recombinant 32-kDa antigen (Ag) of Mycobacterium bovis (r32-kDa M. bovis) than do healthy volunteers. The basis for(More)
Proteins released from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during late logarithmic growth phase are often considered candidate components of immunogenic or autolysis markers. One such protein is isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD), a key regulatory enzyme in the citric acid cycle. We have evaluated the immunogenic properties of two isoforms of Mtb ICD and compared(More)
Background: Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine has displayed inconsistent efficacy in different trials conducted in various geographical regions. Nevertheless, it significantly reduces the risk of severe childhood tuberculosis and continues to be used to prevent tuberculosis in many countries. Many studies revealed that efficacy of vaccine wanes with age. Most(More)
BACKGROUND There are limited reports on the influence of the immune regulatory genotypes on the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in man. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of the cytokine genotype interferon (IFN)-gamma +874T/A on T cell in vitro assays in BCG nonresponders (negative to either in vivo or in vitro test with purified(More)