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The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies carries a high morbidity, mortality (10–90%) and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the United States is 150000 cases, but this figure has been challenged and may be different in Europe. Part of the(More)
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of nonhydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies, carries a high morbidity rate, mortality rate (10% to 90%), and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the United States is 150,000 cases, but this figure has been challenged and may be different in(More)
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies carries a high morbidity, mortality (10-90%) and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the United States is 150,000 cases, but this figure has been challenged and may be different in Europe. Part of(More)
In 12 patients with severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics were evaluated before, during, and after a 2-h period of pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation with the patient in the prone position. Ventilation-perfusion relationships (VA/Q) were assessed by a multiple inert gas elimination technique.(More)
We have developed and successfully used the first microprocessor-controlled monitors for collection of data on depth, heart rate, and body temperature of one fetal and five adult male freely swimming Weddell seals. Adult seals almost invariably experienced a prompt bradycardia at the start of each dive, and the mean heart rate during diving was(More)
A prospective multicenter study was carried out from October 1 to November 30, 1991, to determine the incidence, severity, and mortality of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in Berlin, Germany, a metropolis with a population of 3.44 million. Adult patients from 72 intensive care units (ICUs) were evaluated. ARF was defined as: (1) intubation and mechanical(More)
Arterial blood gas tensions, pH, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured in four free-diving Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli. A microprocessor-controlled sampling system enabled us to obtain 24 single and 31 serial aortic blood samples. The arterial O2 tension (PaO2) at rest [78 +/- 13 (SD) Torr] increased with diving compression to a maximum(More)
In 10 patients with severe, acute respiratory failure we studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure when intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with inspired oxygen (F(IO2)) up to 0.5 failed to maintain arterial oxygen tension (P(aO2)) above 70 torr.Positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2)O were applied(More)
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous vasodilator, was recently described to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, and to improve arterial oxygenation by selective vasodilation of ventilated areas in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We describe the time-course and dose-response of initial short-term NO inhalation in 12(More)
Arterial blood nitrogen tensions of free-diving Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) were measured by attaching a microprocessor-controlled blood pump and drawing samples at depth to determine how these marine mammals dive to great depths and ascend rapidly without developing decompression sickness. Forty-seven samples of arterial blood were obtained from(More)