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A prospective multicenter study was carried out from October 1 to November 30, 1991, to determine the incidence, severity, and mortality of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in Berlin, Germany, a metropolis with a population of 3.44 million. Adult patients from 72 intensive care units (ICUs) were evaluated. ARF was defined as: (1) intubation and mechanical(More)
Arterial blood gas tensions, pH, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured in four free-diving Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli. A microprocessor-controlled sampling system enabled us to obtain 24 single and 31 serial aortic blood samples. The arterial O2 tension (PaO2) at rest [78 +/- 13 (SD) Torr] increased with diving compression to a maximum(More)
Arterial blood nitrogen tensions of free-diving Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) were measured by attaching a microprocessor-controlled blood pump and drawing samples at depth to determine how these marine mammals dive to great depths and ascend rapidly without developing decompression sickness. Forty-seven samples of arterial blood were obtained from(More)
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous vasodilator, was recently described to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, and to improve arterial oxygenation by selective vasodilation of ventilated areas in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We describe the time-course and dose-response of initial short-term NO inhalation in 12(More)
Conventional inter-hospital transfer of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be risky and in severe hypoxaemic patients may be associated with cerebral hypoxia and death. Therefore, we began a phase 1 study to evaluate the feasibility, complications and outcome of(More)
In Germany the predominant standard of preoperative care for elective surgery is fasting after midnight, with the aim of reducing the risk of pulmonary aspiration. However, for the past several years the scientific evidence supporting such a practice has been challenged. Experimental and clinical studies prove a reliable gastric emptying within 2 h(More)
An exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is essential for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We hypothesized that susceptibility to HAPE may be related to decreased production of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous modulator of pulmonary vascular resistance, and that a decrease in exhaled NO could be detected during hypoxic exposure.(More)
Extensive transfusion of blood components as a typical feature of OLT has been described by many authors. The perioperative requirement for transfusion, however, follows a downward trend, although the indications for OLT have been extended. Functional disturbances such as hyperfibrinolysis or platelet dysfunction, demonstrated by laboratory tests, such as(More)
Since the introduction of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) several advantages have been attributed to this ventilatory mode, one of them being a more homogeneous distribution of ventilation and perfusion than during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV). Up to now no data are available to confirm whether this is true when SIMV is(More)
The purpose of this prospective observation cohort study was to develop and validate a risk stratification model for prediction of acute renal failure after liver transplantation. Data from 71 orthotopic liver transplantation recipients were used to develop a risk stratification model by binary logistic regression analysis containing the following(More)