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This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill), using industry standard stepper motors and CNC controlling software. Each axis has variable speed control and may be operated simultaneously or independently. The robot's(More)
In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the awake, behaving animal provide a powerful method for understanding neural signaling at the single-cell level. The technique allows experimenters to examine temporally and regionally specific firing patterns in order to correlate recorded action potentials with ongoing behavior. Moreover, single-unit recordings(More)
Long Evans rats (n=32) were trained for 2 weeks to respond to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) which signaled the delivery of a 20% sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) with varying probabilities. Animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. In the control groups, the CS signaled sucrose delivery with equal probabilities across two weeks, at 100%(More)
RATIONALE It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or "automatic" drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES The present experiment investigated the development of(More)
Interest in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has generated numerous scientific studies of its neuropathologies, as well as its roles in normal sensorimotor integration and learning. Studies are informed by knowledge of DLS functional organization, the guiding principle being its somatotopic afferent projections from primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1)(More)
As drug use becomes chronic, aberrant striatal processing contributes to the development of perseverative drug-taking behaviors. Two particular portions of the striatum, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), are known to undergo neurobiological changes from acute to chronic drug use. However, little is known about the exact(More)
Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely(More)
Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons might play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Among these, striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. FSIs display a strong medial<lateral(More)