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Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN
TLDR
An anatomically distinct population of ‘giant’, melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in the primate retina that, in addition to being intrinsically photosensitive, are strongly activated by rods and cones, and display a rare, S-Off, (L + M)-On type of colour-opponent receptive field. Expand
Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells: Architecture, Projections, and Intrinsic Photosensitivity
TLDR
It is shown that melanopsin is present in cell bodies, dendrites, and proximal axonal segments of a subset of rat RGCs, most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing R GCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non–image-forming visual functions. Expand
Central projections of melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse
TLDR
Staining patterns after monocular enucleation revealed that the projections of these cells are overwhelmingly crossed except for the projection to the SCN, which is bilaterally symmetrical, and that other ganglion cells do contribute at least some retinal input to these targets. Expand
Diminished Pupillary Light Reflex at High Irradiances in Melanopsin-Knockout Mice
TLDR
It is reported that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs retrograde-labeled from the suprachiasmatic nuclei were no longer intrinsically photosensitive, although their number, morphology, and projections were unchanged. Expand
Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells
TLDR
It is indicated that the intrinsic photoresponses of intrinsically-photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the pupillary light reflex and are primarily responsible for the sustained pupilloconstriction that occurs following light offset. Expand
Melanopsin and rod–cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice
TLDR
The rod–cone and melanopsin systems together seem to provide all of the photic input for these accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-entrainment. Expand
Responses of retinal rods to single photons.
TLDR
Individual quantal responses exhibited a smooth shape very similar to that of the average quantal response, which suggests that a single photoisomerization releases many particles of transmitter and that radial diffusion of internal transmitter is not a major source of delay in the light response. Expand
Two components of electrical dark noise in toad retinal rod outer segments.
TLDR
Values of sensitivity and time‐to‐peak flash response collected from many cells in darkness were correlated by the same power law relation obtaining in the presence of backgrounds, suggesting that discrete events may arise from spontaneous activation of single rhodopsin molecules. Expand
The vitelliform macular dystrophy protein defines a new family of chloride channels
TLDR
Heterologous expression is used to establish the existence of a new chloride channel family and VMD as a channelopathy, consistent with the dominant nature of the disease. Expand
Primary structure and functional expression of a cyclic nucleotide-activated channel from olfactory neurons
TLDR
The molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of a channel that is likely to mediate olfactory transduction are reported, suggesting that the two systems might use homologous channels. Expand
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