Neuroanatomy of the pain system and of the pathways that modulate pain.
Structures involved in the descending analgesia systems, including the periaqueductal gray, locus ceruleus, and parabrachial area, nucleus raphe magnus, reticular formation, anterior pretectal nucleus, thalamus and cerebral cortex, and several components of the limbic system are described and the pathways and neurotransmitters utilized are mentioned.
Excitatory amino acid receptor involvement in peripheral nociceptive transmission in rats.
The efferent projections of the periaqueductal gray in the rat: A Phaseolus vulgaris‐leucoagglutinin study. II. Descending projections
- A. Cameron, Iqbal A. Khan, K. Westlund, W. Willis
- BiologyThe Journal of comparative neurology
- 23 January 1995
The results suggest that the dorsolateral and ventrolateral parts of the PAG are organized into longitudinal columns that extend throughout the length of the C5 noradrenergic cell group.
Noradrenergic projections to the spinal cord of the rat
Descending projections of the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus/medial parabrachial nuclei in monkey: Axonal transport studies and dopamine-β-hydroxylase immunocytochemistry
Visceral nociceptive input into the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus: a new function for the dorsal column pathway.
It is concluded that the DC in the rat contains a pathway that is more important for transmitting visceral nociceptive signals to the VPL nucleus than are pathways in the VLC, including the spinothalamic tract.
Pelvic visceral input into the nucleus gracilis is largely mediated by the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway.
There is an important pelvic visceral nociceptive pathway involving PSDC neurons that synapse in the NG that contributes to visceral pain sensation and thus that pelvic visceral pain depends largely on activity in the DC-medial lemniscus system.
Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain‐related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis
Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side‐effects, but CBD is hydrophobic and has poor oral bioavailability, so topical application avoids gastrointestinal administration, first pass metabolism, providing more constant plasma levels.
Thermosensitive TRP ion channels mediate cytosolic calcium response in human synoviocytes.
- M. Kochukov, T. McNearney, Yibing Fu, K. Westlund
- BiologyAmerican journal of physiology. Cell physiology
- 1 September 2006
It is proposed that the TRP channels are functionally expressed in human synoviocytes and may play a critical role in adaptive or pathological changes in articular surfaces during arthritic inflammation.
Sensitization of postsynaptic dorsal column neuronal responses by colon inflammation
Observations support a role of the PSDC system in viscerosensory processing and primary visceral hyperalgesia.