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Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function.
TLDR
Future studies will rely heavily on the use of recombinant DNA technology and site-specific mutagenesis to elucidate further the correlations between structure and function and the role of specific apolipoproteins in lipoprotein metabolism.
Apolipoprotein E: structure-function relationships.
TLDR
The three-dimensional structure of a 22-kDa fragment of human apoE is solved by X-ray crystallography and the relation of this structure to the role of apo E in lipoprotein metabolism is discussed, together with a critical and extensive examination of the chemistry and biology of this apolipoprotein.
Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including Alzheimer's disease.
TLDR
The premise of this review is that apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is much more than a contributing factor to neurodegeneration, and potential therapeutic strategies are suggested, including the use of "structure correctors" to convert apoE4 to an "apoE3-like" molecule, protease inhibitors to prevent the generation of toxic apOE4 fragments, and "mitochondrial protector" to prevent cellular energy disruption.
Binding of human apolipoprotein E to synthetic amyloid beta peptide: isoform-specific effects and implications for late-onset Alzheimer disease.
TLDR
Differences in the two isoforms in complexing with the beta/A4 peptide may be involved in the pathogenesis of the intra- and extracellular lesions of Alzheimer disease.
Apolipoprotein E structure: insights into function.
TLDR
Human apolipoprotein E has a key role in lipid transport both in the plasma and in the central nervous system and its three common structural isoforms differentially affect the risk of developing atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease.
Lipoproteins and their receptors in the central nervous system. Characterization of the lipoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid and identification of apolipoprotein B,E(LDL) receptors in the brain.
TLDR
The expression of apolipoprotein E,E(LDL) receptors by brain cells and the presence of apoE- and apoA-I-containing lipoproteins in CSF suggest that the central nervous system has a mechanism for lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis similar to that of other tissues.
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding.
TLDR
These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in patients, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100.
Differential effects of apolipoproteins E3 and E4 on neuronal growth in vitro.
TLDR
The data suggest that receptor-mediated binding or internalization of apoE-enriched beta-VLDL leads to isoform-specific differences in interactions with cellular proteins that affect neurite outgrowth.
Carboxyl-terminal-truncated apolipoprotein E4 causes Alzheimer's disease-like neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits in transgenic mice
TLDR
Carboxyl-terminal-truncated fragments of apoE4, which occur in AD brains, are sufficient to elicit AD-like neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits in vivo, and inhibiting their formation might inhibit apOE4-associated neuronal deficits.
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