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Bad is Stronger than Good
The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, andExpand
Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?
Self-esteem has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positiveExpand
The Strength Model of Self-Control
Self-control is a central function of the self and an important key to success in life. The exertion of self-control appears to depend on a limited resource. Just as a muscle gets tired fromExpand
The Meaning Maintenance Model: On the Coherence of Social Motivations
The meaning maintenance model (MMM) proposes that people have a needfor meaning; that is, a need to perceive events through a prism of mental representations of expected relations that organizesExpand
How Emotion Shapes Behavior: Feedback, Anticipation, and Reflection, Rather Than Direct Causation
Fear causes fleeing and thereby saves lives: this exemplifies a popular and common sense but increasingly untenable view that the direct causation of behavior is the primary function of emotion.Expand
Self-Regulation, Ego Depletion, and Motivation
Motivation is underappr eciated in self-r egulation theories (as is tr ue in social personality psychology at large). This paper reviews the role of motivation in the context of the strength, orExpand
Self-Regulatory Failure: A Resource-Depletion Approach
Three studies were conducted to test the behavioral consequences of effortful self-regulation. Individuals with chronic inhibitions about eating were exposed to situations varying in level ofExpand
The Psychological Consequences of Money
Money has been said to change people's motivation (mainly for the better) and their behavior toward others (mainly for the worse). The results of nine experiments suggest that money brings about aExpand
Spent Resources: Self‐Regulatory Resource Availability Affects Impulse Buying
This research investigated impulse buying as resulting from the depletion of a common-but limited-resource that governs self-control. In three investigations, participants' self-regulatory resourcesExpand
The Value of Believing in Free Will
Does moral behavior draw on a belief in free will? Two experiments examined whether inducing participants to believe that human behavior is predetermined would encourage cheating. In Experiment 1,Expand
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