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Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
Report summarizing climate change issues in 2013, with an emphasis on physical science. It includes a summary of issues to assist policymakers, a technical summary, and a list of frequently-askedExpand
The Definition of El Niño.
Abstract A review is given of the meaning of the term "El Nino" and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, andExpand
The ERA‐40 re‐analysis
ERA-40 is a re-analysis of meteorological observations from September 1957 to August 2002 produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in collaboration with manyExpand
A Global Dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870–2002: Relationship with Soil Moisture and Effects of Surface Warming
A monthly dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from 1870 to 2002 is derived using historical precipitation and temperature data for global land areas on a 2.58 grid. Over Illinois,Expand
Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific
Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmosphericExpand
Estimates of Meridional Atmosphere and Ocean Heat Transports
New estimates of the poleward energy transport based on atmospheric reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction‐National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP‐NCAR) and theExpand
Earth's Global Energy Budget
An update is provided on the Earth's global annual mean energy budget in the light of new observations and analyses. In 1997, Kiehl and Trenberth provided a review of past estimates and performed aExpand
The changing character of precipitation
Abstract From a societal, weather, and climate perspective, precipitation intensity, duration, frequency, and phase are as much of concern as total amounts, as these factors determine the dispositionExpand
Estimates of Freshwater Discharge from Continents: Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations
Annual and monthly mean values of continental freshwater discharge into the oceans are estimated at 18 resolution using several methods. The most accurate estimate is based on streamflow data fromExpand