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Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
TLDR
Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock. Expand
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
TLDR
It is reported that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is essential for inhibiting cytokine synthesis by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Expand
The inflammatory reflex
  • K. Tracey
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature
  • 19 December 2002
TLDR
The discovery that cholinergic neurons inhibit acute inflammation has qualitatively expanded understanding of how the nervous system modulates immune responses, and the opportunity now exists to apply this insight to the treatment of inflammation through selective and reversible 'hard-wired' neural systems. Expand
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal
TLDR
These features of HMGB1 are discussed and recent advances that have led to the preclinical development of therapeutics that modulateHMGB1 release and activity are summarized. Expand
High Mobility Group 1 Protein (Hmg-1) Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Human Monocytes
TLDR
Results indicate that, like other cytokine mediators of endotoxin lethality (e.g., TNF and IL-1), extracellular HMG-1 is a regulator of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. Expand
HMGB1 is a therapeutic target for sterile inflammation and infection.
TLDR
Experimental strategies that selectively target HMGB1 and TLR4 effectively reverse and prevent activation of innate immunity and significantly attenuate damage in diverse models of sterile and infection-induced threat. Expand
The nuclear factor HMGB1 mediates hepatic injury after murine liver ischemia-reperfusion
TLDR
It is demonstrated that HMGB1 is an early mediator of injury and inflammation in liver I/R and implicates TLR4 as one of the receptors that is involved in the process. Expand
Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.
  • K. Tracey
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of clinical investigation
  • 1 February 2007
TLDR
This physiological, functional anatomical mechanism for neurological regulation of cytokine-dependent disease that begins to define an immunological homunculus is reviewed. Expand
HMGB1 SIGNALS THROUGH TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR (TLR) 4 AND TLR2
TLDR
It is demonstrated that in human whole blood, neutralizing antibodies against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but not TLR2 or receptor for advanced glycation end product) dose-dependently attenuate HMGB1-induced IL-8 release, suggesting that there is a differential usage ofTLR2 and TLR4 inHMGB1 signaling in primary cells and in established cell lines. Expand
Cholinergic agonists inhibit HMGB1 release and improve survival in experimental sepsis
Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms can potentially be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here we report that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inhibits HMGB1 release fromExpand
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