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Toll-like receptor signalling
Rapid progress that has recently improved the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate TLR signalling is reviewed. Expand
A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA. Expand
Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity
Evidence is accumulating that the signaling pathways associated with each TLR are not identical and may, therefore, result in different biological responses. Expand
Toll-like receptors in innate immunity.
Toll-like receptors-mediated activation of innate immunity controls not only host defense against pathogens but also immune disorders, and the involvement of TLR-mediated pathways in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been proposed. Expand
TLR signaling pathways.
Toll-like receptors have been established to play an essential role in the activation of innate immunity by recognizing specific patterns of microbial components and TIR domain-containing adaptors provide specificity of TLR signaling. Expand
The innate immune system in drosophila and mammals senses the invasion of microorganisms using the family of Toll receptors, stimulation of which initiates a range of host defense mechanisms and there is evidence for additional pathways that mediate TLR ligand-specific biological responses. Expand
Induction of Intestinal Th17 Cells by Segmented Filamentous Bacteria
The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is inhabited by hundreds of distinct species of commensal microorganisms that exist in a mutualistic relationship with the host. How commensal microbiota… Expand
Role of Adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-Independent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
It is shown that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense and complete loss of nuclear factor kappa B activation in response toTLR4 stimulation is demonstrated. Expand
Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.
It is demonstrated that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response, and a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family is found. Expand
Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components.
It is demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo andTLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition. Expand