Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer.
In addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82Should be considered carcinogenic, or high-risk, types, and types 26, 53, and 66 should be considered probably carcinogenic.
Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide
The presence of HPV in virtually all cervical cancers implies the highest worldwide attributable fraction so far reported for a specific cause of any major human cancer, and the rationale for HPV testing in addition to, or even instead of, cervical cytology in routine cervical screening.
The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.
- F. X. Bosch, A. Lorincz, N. Muñoz, C. Meijer, K. Shah
- MedicineJournal of Clinical Pathology
- 1 April 2002
It is the right time for medical societies and public health regulators to consider the causal role of human papillomavirus infections in cervical cancer and to define its preventive and clinical implications.
Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group.
The results confirm the role of genitalHPVs, which are transmitted sexually, as the central etiologic factor in cervical cancer worldwide and suggest that most genital HPVs are associated with cancer, at least occasionally.
Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? the international perspective
A pooled analysis of data from an international survey of HPV types in cervical cancer and from a multicenter case‐control study found that higher than average proportions of type 16 were found in northern Africa, of type 18 in south Asia, oftype 45 in sub‐Saharan Africa and of type 31 in Central/South America.
Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners.
Male circumcision is associated with a reduced risk of penile HPV infection and, in the case of men with a history of multiple sexual partners, a reducedrisk of cervical cancer in their current female partners.
Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study
Association of BK viruria with hemorrhagic cystitis in recipients of bone marrow transplants.
- R. Arthur, K. Shah, S. Baust, G. Santos, R. Saral
- Medicine, BiologyNew England Journal of Medicine
- 24 July 1986
It is concluded that reactivation of BK virus may account for a substantial proportion of late-onset, long-lasting hemorrhagic cystitis in recipients of bone marrow transplants.
Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by the polymerase chain reaction
Urine samples collected from immunosuppressed patients and previously documented to be positive for BKV, JCV, or both were positive by PCR, and JCV was detected in deparaffinized brain tissue from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Benefits and costs of using HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer.
Screening with HPV plus Pap tests every 2 years appears to save additional years of life at reasonable costs compared with Pap testing alone, and applying age limits to screening is a viable option to maintain benefits while reducing costs.