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Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain.
The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of [3H]CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in the in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Expand
Amphetamine‐type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
In vitro methods determined the neurochemical mechanism of action of amphetamine, 3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), (+)‐methamphetamine, ephedrine, phentermine, and aminorex, and demonstrated that the most potent effect of these stimulants is to release NE. Expand
Stress-induced relapse to cocaine seeking: roles for the CRF2 receptor and CRF-binding protein in the ventral tegmental area of the rat
A role of VTA CRF-BP is revealed and an involvement of CRF2R is suggested in the effectiveness of stress in triggering glutamate and dopamine release and cocaine seeking in drug-experienced animals. Expand
Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous κ opioid selective agonist
Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for itsExpand
Effects of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor on Neuronal Activity in the Serotonergic Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
The present study examined the regional localization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers within the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) usingExpand
Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist.
Salvinorin A is the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist for kappa opioid receptors, and may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Expand
The "toll" of opioid-induced glial activation: improving the clinical efficacy of opioids by targeting glia.
This discovery identifies a means for separating the beneficial actions of opioids from the unwanted side-effects (TLR4/glial mediated) by pharmacologically targeting TLR4, a recently recognized key glial receptor participating in neuropathic pain as well. Expand
Exploring the Neuroimmunopharmacology of Opioids: An Integrative Review of Mechanisms of Central Immune Signaling and Their Implications for Opioid Analgesia
A unification of the preclinical pharmacology, neuroscience, and immunology of opioids now provides new insights into common mechanisms of chronic pain, naive tolerance, analgesic tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and allodynia. Expand
Pronounced and sustained central hypernoradrenergic function in major depression with melancholic features: relation to hypercortisolism and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
  • M. Wong, M. Kling, +14 authors P. Gold
  • Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 4 January 2000
The data indicate that persistent stress-system dysfunction in melancholic depression is independent of the conscious stress of the disorder and suggest mutually reinforcing bidirectional links between a central hypernoradrenergic state and the hyperfunctioning of specific central CRH pathways that each are driven and sustained by hypercortisolism. Expand
Evidence that opioids may have toll-like receptor 4 and MD-2 effects
Evidence is provided that select opioids may non-stereoselectively influence TLR 4 signaling and have behavioral consequences resulting, in part, via TLR4 signaling. Expand