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In this paper we review the academic evidence on earnings management and its implications for accounting standard setters and regulators. We structure our review around a rich set of questions likelyExpand
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Earnings Management to Avoid Earnings Declines across Publicly and Privately Held Banks
This study compares samples of publicly and privately held bank holding companies to examine whether the high frequency of small earnings increases relative to small earnings decreases reported byExpand
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CFOs and CEOs: Who Have the Most Influence on Earnings Management?
This study examines the association between chief financial officer (CFO) equity incentives and earnings management. Chief executive officer (CEO) equity incentives have been shown to be associatedExpand
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Optimistic reporting in the property- casualty insurance industry*
Abstract This paper examines the response of managers of property-casualty insures to the differential costs and benefits of understanding the liability for outstanding claim losses. The primaryExpand
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What Insiders Know About Future Earnings and How They Use it: Evidence from Insider Trades
This paper provides evidence that insiders possess, and trade upon, knowledge of specific and economically-significant forthcoming accounting disclosures as long as two years prior to the disclosure.Expand
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How Informed are Actively Trading Institutional Investors? Evidence from Their Trading Behavior Before a Break in a String of Consecutive Earnings Increases
We examine whether transient institutional investors (i.e., institutions that trade actively to maximize short-term profits) have information that allows them to predict a break in a string ofExpand
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Board Independence and Audit Firm Type
This paper investigates the role of outside members of the board of directors in the choice of external auditor for property-casualty insurance companies. Consistent with our hypothesis that weExpand
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Comprehensive Income: Who's Afraid of Performance Reporting?
ABSTRACT: Firms can report comprehensive income in either an income‐statement‐like performance statement or the statement of equity. Traditional theories of contracting incentives cannot explain thisExpand
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Errors in Accounting Estimates and their Relation to Audit Firm Type
We assess accuracy and bias in the accounting estimate of outstanding claim losses reported in the audited statutory financial statements of 197 property-casualty insurers during 1979-1983. OurExpand
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