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The Cambrian Conundrum: Early Divergence and Later Ecological Success in the Early History of Animals
A compilation of the patterns of fossil and molecular diversification, comparative developmental data, and information on ecological feeding strategies indicate that the major animal clades diverged many tens of millions of years before their first appearance in the fossil record. Expand
Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life
It is demonstrated that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y. Expand
Animal phylogeny and the ancestry of bilaterians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences
Because chaetognaths and lophophorates, taxa traditionally allied with deuterostomes, occupy basal positions within their respective protostomian clades, deuterstomy most likely represents a suite of characters plesiomorphic for bilaterians. Expand
The dynamic genome of Hydra
Comparisons of the Hydra genome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann–Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. Expand
Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella
This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenobiology including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. Expand
The deep evolution of metazoan microRNAs
The shared complement of miRNAs among 18 animal species is described using a combination of 454 sequencing of small RNA libraries with genomic searches and it is proposed that mi RNAs might be excellent phylogenetic markers, and suggest that the advent of morphological complexity might have its roots in miRNA innovation. Expand
The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
The sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is reported, a model for developmental and systems biology and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes. Expand
Estimating metazoan divergence times with a molecular clock.
The last common ancestor of bilaterians arose somewhere between 573 and 656 Ma, depending on the value assigned to the parameter scaling molecular substitution rate heterogeneity, and this results support the view that the Cambrian explosion reflects, in part, the diversification of bilateralian phyla. Expand
Phylogenetic-signal dissection of nuclear housekeeping genes supports the paraphyly of sponges and the monophyly of Eumetazoa.
The relationships at the base of the metazoan tree have been difficult to robustly resolve, and there are several different hypotheses regarding the interrelationships among sponges, cnidarians,Expand
MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda
The study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods. Expand