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Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition.
The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical"Expand
Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction.
Chinese ways of dealing with seeming contradictions result in a dialectical or compromise approach—retaining basic elements of opposing perspectives by seeking a "middle way." On the other hand,Expand
Culture and Cause: American and Chinese Attributions for Social and Physical Events
The authors argue that attribution patterns reflect implicit theories acquired from induction and socialization and hence differentially distributed across human cultures. In particular, the authorsExpand
What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.
Although cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern, the problematic nature of this reference-group effect was demonstrated. Expand
Running Head: CULTURE AND THOUGHT Culture and Systems of Thought: Holistic vs. Analytic Cognition
We propose a theory of how systems of thought arise on the basis of differing cultural practices and argue that the theory accounts for substantial differences in East Asian and Western thoughtExpand
Dialectical Self-Esteem and East-West Differences in Psychological Well-Being
The authors present the results of four studies that examined cultural differences in reasoning about psychological contradiction and the effects of naive dialecticism on self-evaluations and psychological adjustment and found that increased dialecticism was related to decreased psychological adjustment. Expand
Culture, control, and perception of relationships in the environment.
The results showed that Chinese participants reported stronger association between events, were more responsive to differences in covariation, and were more confident about their covariation judgments, and these cultural differences disappeared when participants believed they had some control over the covariation judgment task. Expand
Validity problems comparing values across cultures and possible solutions.
The authors argue that commonly used ranking and rating methods of value surveys may have low validity in cross-cultura l value comparisons because participants' reports about values can be affectedExpand
Awe, the Diminished Self, and Collective Engagement: Universals and Cultural Variations in the Small Self
It is proposed that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Expand
White selves: conceptualizing and measuring a dominant-group identity.
  • E. Knowles, K. Peng
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1 August 2005
Four studies validated a measure of White identification against criteria derived from the WICIAT, which predicted phenomena associated with the linking of self- and ingroup evaluations: identity-related biases in intergroup categorization and self-evaluative emotional reactions to ingroup transgressions. Expand