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Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life
TLDR
This data reinforce several previously identified clades that split deeply in the animal tree, unambiguously resolve multiple long-standing issues for which there was strong conflicting support in earlier studies with less data, and provide molecular support for the monophyly of molluscs, a group long recognized by morphologists. Expand
The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution
TLDR
The genome of the ctenophore the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, Mnemiopsis leidyi, is sequenced and it is concluded that c tenophores alone, not sponges or the clade consisting of both ctenphores and cnidarians, are the most basal extant animals. Expand
Unexpected complexity of the Wnt gene family in a sea anemone
TLDR
The isolation of twelve Wnt genes from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a species representing the basal group within cnidarians, indicates distinct roles of Wnts in gastrulation, resulting in serial overlapping expression domains along the primary axis of the planula larva. Expand
Investigating the origins of triploblasty: `mesodermal' gene expression in a diploblastic animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa)
TLDR
The developmental expression of seven genes from Nematostella are studied, and the predominantly endodermal expression of these genes reinforces the hypothesis that the mesoderm and endoderm of triploblastic animals could be derived from the endoderman of a diploblastics ancestor. Expand
Origins of Bilateral Symmetry: Hox and Dpp Expression in a Sea Anemone
TLDR
It is shown that Nematostella uses homologous genes to achieve bilateral symmetry: Multiple Hox genes are expressed in a staggered fashion along its primary body axis, and the transforming growth factor–β gene decapentaplegic is expressed in an asymmetric fashion about its secondary body axis. Expand
A WNT of things to come: evolution of Wnt signaling and polarity in cnidarians.
TLDR
What is currently known about Wnt signaling in cnidarians is examined, and what this group of "simple" animals may reveal about the evolution of WNT signaling and polarity is discussed. Expand
Molecular evidence for deep evolutionary roots of bilaterality in animal development.
TLDR
The asymmetric expression of NvNoggin1 and NvGsc appear to be maintained by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which argues that N. vectensis could possess antecedents of the organization of the bilaterian central nervous system. Expand
Genomic inventory and expression of Sox and Fox genes in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis
TLDR
It is found that the majority of bilaterian Sox groups have clear Nematostella orthologs, while only a minority of Fox groups are represented, suggesting that the evolutionary pressures driving the diversification of these gene families may be distinct from one another. Expand
An ancient role for nuclear β-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation
TLDR
In vivo distribution, stability and function of β-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are examined, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation. Expand
Pre-Bilaterian Origins of the Hox Cluster and the Hox Code: Evidence from the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis
TLDR
Phylogenetic, developmental, and genomic analyses on the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis challenge recent claims that the Hox code is a bilaterian invention and that no “true” Hox genes exist in the phylum Cnidaria. Expand
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