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Two analogs of azaspiracid isolated from mussels, Mytilus edulis, involved in human intoxication in Ireland.
TLDR
Two new analogs of azaspiracid were isolated from mussels collected at Arranmore Island, Ireland in 1997 as additional causes of human intoxication by NMR and negative ion FAB CID MS/MS experiments.
Chronic effects in mice caused by oral administration of sublethal doses of azaspiracid, a new marine toxin isolated from mussels.
TLDR
Slow recoveries from injuries were revealed: erosion and shortened villi persisted in the stomach and small intestine for more than 3 months: edema, bleeding, and infiltration of cells in the alveolar wall of the lung for 56 days; fatty changes in the liver for 20 days; and necrosis of lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen for 10 days.
A sensitive and specific determination method for azaspiracids by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
TLDR
A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed and used to confirm the presence of azaspiracids in toxic mussels collected at Arranmore Island, Ireland in 1997.
Multiple organ damage caused by a new toxin azaspiracid, isolated from mussels produced in Ireland.
TLDR
In vivo studies with mice revealed that the causative agent, azaspiracid, caused necrosis in the lamina propria of the small intestine and in lymphoid tissues such as thymus, spleen and the Peyer's patches.
Azaspiracid-1, a potent, nonapoptotic new phycotoxin with several cell targets.
TLDR
Results indicate that the toxin does not have an apoptotic effect but uses actin for some of its effects, and cytoskeleton seems to be an important cellular target for AZ-1 effect.
Azaspiracid-4 inhibits Ca2+ entry by stored operated channels in human T lymphocytes.
TLDR
First data about the effect of AZ-4 on cytosolic calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in freshly human lymphocytes are presented, showing an effect clearly different from other azaspiracid analogues.
Structures of Azaspiracid Analogs, Azaspiracid-4 and Azaspiracid-5, Causative Toxins of Azaspiracid Poisoning in Europe
TLDR
Two new analogs of azaspiracid, isolated from the mussel Mytilus edulis, involved in a newly emerged shellfish poisoning in Europe were determined to be 3-hydroxy-22-demethylazAspiracid and 23-hydroxymethylazaspir acid, respectively.
Azaspiracids modulate intracellular pH levels in human lymphocytes.
TLDR
Results point to a structure-activity relationship in AZAs pH effect that affects the modulation and the coupling of intracellular pH and Ca2+.
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