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Ubiquitin ligases: cell-cycle control and cancer
A better understanding of the ubiquitylation machinery will provide new insights into the regulatory biology of cell-cycle transitions and the development of anti-cancer drugs.
Two E3 ubiquitin ligases, SCF‐Skp2 and DDB1‐Cul4, target human Cdt1 for proteolysis
It is shown here that the N‐terminal 100 amino acids of human Cdt1 are recognized for proteolysis by two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases during S–G2 phases, which are essential for DDB1‐Cul4‐mediated proteolyses and following ultraviolet‐irradiation.
Phosphorylation‐dependent degradation of c‐Myc is mediated by the F‐box protein Fbw7
It is shown that the F‐box protein Fbw7 interacts with and thereby destabilizes c‐Myc in a manner dependent on phosphorylation of MB1, suggesting that two F‐ box proteins, FbW7 and Skp2, differentially regulate c‐ myc stability by targeting MB1 and MB2, respectively.
VHL-box and SOCS-box domains determine binding specificity for Cul2-Rbx1 and Cul5-Rbx2 modules of ubiquitin ligases.
Domain-swapping analyses showed that the specificity of interaction of VHL-box and SOCS-box proteins with Cullin-Rbx modules is determined by the Cul2 and Cul5 boxes, respectively, which suggest that the functions of the Cul1-rbx1 and Cul2-R bx2 modules are distinct.
Phosphorylation of beta-catenin by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stabilizes beta-catenin through inhibition of its ubiquitination.
Results indicate that PKA inhibits the ubiquitination of beta-Catenin by phosphorylating beta-catenin, thereby causing beta- catenin to accumulate and the Wnt signaling pathway to be activated.
Blue light-induced autophosphorylation of phototropin is a primary step for signaling
Phototropins are autophosphorylating protein kinases of plant-specific blue light receptors. They regulate various blue light responses, including phototropism, chloroplast movements, hypocotyl
Essential role for ZAP-70 in both positive and negative selection of thymocytes
The data suggest that ZAP-70 is a central signalling molecule during thymic selection for CD4 and CD8 lineage, and that natural killer cell function was intact in the absence of Zap-70.