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Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval
‘New’ memories are initially labile and sensitive to disruption before being consolidated into stable long-term memories. Much evidence indicates that this consolidation involves the synthesis of newExpand
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Memory traces unbound
  • K. Nader
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1 February 2003
The idea that new memories are initially 'labile' and sensitive to disruption before becoming permanently stored in the wiring of the brain has been dogma for >100 years. Recently, we have revisitedExpand
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Cellular and Systems Reconsolidation in the Hippocampus
Cellular theories of memory consolidation posit that new memories require new protein synthesis in order to be stored. Systems consolidation theories posit that the hippocampus has a time-limitedExpand
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A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation
Consolidated memories can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, from which they must again stabilize in order to persist, contradicting the previously dominant view thatExpand
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Reply — reconsolidation: The labile nature of consolidation theory
'Consolidation' has been used to describe distinct but related processes. In considering the implications of our recent findings on the lability of reactivated fear memories, we view consolidationExpand
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eIF2α Phosphorylation Bidirectionally Regulates the Switch from Short- to Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Memory
The late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory (LTM) requires new gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. Phosphorylation ofExpand
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Translational control of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory by the eIF2α kinase GCN2
Studies on various forms of synaptic plasticity have shown a link between messenger RNA translation, learning and memory. Like memory, synaptic plasticity includes an early phase that depends onExpand
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Characterization of Fear Memory Reconsolidation
Reactivation of consolidated memories returns them to a protein synthesis-dependent state. One interpretation of these findings is that the memory reconsolidates after use. Two alternativeExpand
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NMDA receptors are critical for unleashing consolidated auditory fear memories
Memories are dynamic and can change when recalled. The process that returns memories to a labile state during remembering is unclear. We found that the presence of NMDA, but not AMPA, receptorExpand
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Autism-related deficits via dysregulated eIF4E-dependent translational control
Hyperconnectivity of neuronal circuits due to increased synaptic protein synthesis is thought to cause autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is stronglyExpand
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