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Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.
TLDR
To target at-risk species and amphibian communities, this work develops sampling strategies and filtering protocols that result in probiotics that inhibit Bd under ecologically relevant conditions and persist on susceptible amphibians. Expand
Skin microbes on frogs prevent morbidity and mortality caused by a lethal skin fungus
TLDR
Adding an antifungal bacterial species, Janthinobacterium lividum, found on several species of amphibians to the skins of the frog Rana muscosa prevented morbidity and mortality caused by the pathogen chytridiomycosis, showing that cutaneous microbes are a part of amphibian' innate immune system, the microbial community structure on frog skins is a determinant of disease outcome and altering microbial interactions onfrog skins can prevent a lethal disease outcome. Expand
Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus
TLDR
A strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure is suggested and a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics is suggested. Expand
Amphibian Chemical Defense: Antifungal Metabolites of the Microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the Salamander Plethodon cinereus
TLDR
The hypothesis that cutaneous, mutualistic bacteria play a role in amphibian resistance to fungal disease is supported and exploitation of this biological process may provide long-term resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Expand
The Identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an Antifungal Metabolite Produced by Cutaneous Bacteria of the Salamander Plethodon cinereus
TLDR
This study is the first to show that an epibiotic bacterium on an amphibian species produces a chemical that inhibits pathogenic fungi. Expand
Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities
TLDR
Overall, field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites, and community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in these skin symbiont microbial systems as it is in many macro-systems. Expand
Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites
Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd).Expand
Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that antifungal properties are phylogenetically widespread in symbiotic microbial communities of Panamanian amphibians and that some functional redundancy for fungal inhibition occurs in these communities. Expand
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: An Antimicrobial Mainstay and Platform for Innovation to Address Bacterial Resistance.
TLDR
In this review, both QAC development and QAC resistance are documented, and possible strategies for addressing and overcoming QAC-resistant bacteria are discussed. Expand
The Bacterially Produced Metabolite Violacein Is Associated with Survival of Amphibians Infected with a Lethal Fungus
TLDR
It is suggested that a threshold violacein concentration of about 18 μM on a salamander's skin prevents mortality and morbidity caused by B. dendrobatidis, and it is shown that over one-half of individuals in nature support antifungal bacteria that produce Violacein, which suggests that there is a mutualism between violACEin-producing bacteria and P. cinereus. Expand
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