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Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System
The microbial adaptive immune system CRISPR mediates defense against foreign genetic elements through two classes of RNA-guided nuclease effectors. Class 1 effectors utilize multi-protein complexes,Expand
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Small CRISPR RNAs Guide Antiviral Defense in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes acquire virus resistance by integrating short fragments of viral nucleic acid into clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Here we show how virus-derivedExpand
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Evolution and classification of the CRISPR–Cas systems
The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. TheseExpand
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An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems
The evolution of CRISPR–cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontalExpand
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In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basicExpand
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Expanded microbial genome coverage and improved protein family annotation in the COG database
We present an update of the COGs, the first since 2003, and a comprehensive revision of the genome coverage to include representative complete genomes from all bacterial and archaeal lineages down to the genus level. Expand
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A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of
BackgroundAll archaeal and many bacterial genomes contain Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) and variable arrays of the CRISPR-associated (cas) genes that have beenExpand
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Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria
Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representingExpand
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A comprehensive evolutionary classification of proteins encoded in complete eukaryotic genomes
BackgroundSequencing the genomes of multiple, taxonomically diverse eukaryotes enables in-depth comparative-genomic analysis which is expected to help in reconstructing ancestral eukaryotic genomesExpand
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Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum.
The genome sequence of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has been determined by the shotgun approach. The genome consists of a 3.94-Mb chromosome and a 192-kbExpand
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