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The lymphocytic cholinergic system and its contribution to the regulation of immune activity.
The facts that lymphocytic cholinergic activity reflects well the changes in immune system function seen in animal models of immune deficiency and immune acceleration provide a compelling picture in which lymphocytes constitute a Cholinergic system that is independent of cholin allergic nerves, and which is involved in the regulation of immune function. Expand
Expression of non-neuronal acetylcholine in lymphocytes and its contribution to the regulation of immune function.
- K. Kawashima, T. Fujii
- Biology, Medicine
- Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual…
- 1 September 2004
The data provide a compelling picture in which lymphocytes constitute a cholinergic system that is independent of Cholinergic nerves, and which is involved in the regulation of immune function and local circulation. Expand
Extraneuronal cholinergic system in lymphocytes.
The observation that muscarinic receptor stimulation by ACh or agonists increases in [Ca(2)+](i) and up-regulates c-fos expression strongly argues that ACh synthesized and released from T-lymphocytes acts as an autocrine and/or paracrine factor regulating immune function. Expand
Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell lines
Results indicate that both neuronal-type Nc and Ms ACh receptors are present on the surface of lymphocytes, to investigate whether ACh in the blood acts on lymphocytes and participates in the modulation of immune responses. Expand
Rat lymphocytes produce and secrete acetylcholine in dependence of differentiation and activation
The RNA message for choline acetyltransferase in thymic, splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats using RT-PCR was detected and acetylcholine levels in lymphoid cells were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Expand
Critical roles of acetylcholine and the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of immune function.
It is shown that T cells express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an ACh synthesizing enzyme, which enhances ACh synthesis through the up-regulation of ChAT expression, suggesting lymphocytic cholinergic activity is related to immunological activity. Expand
Basic and clinical aspects of non-neuronal acetylcholine: overview of non-neuronal cholinergic systems and their biological significance.
These findings support the notion that non-neuronal cholinergic systems are expressed in certain cells and tissues and are involved in the regulation of their function and that Cholinergic dysfunction is related to the pathophysiology of certain diseases. Expand
Expression and function of genes encoding cholinergic components in murine immune cells.
- K. Kawashima, K. Yoshikawa, Yoshihito X. Fujii, Y. Moriwaki, H. Misawa
- Medicine, Biology
- Life sciences
- 30 May 2007
The results suggest that the lymphocytic cholinergic system is activated by ACh via mAChR- and nAchR-mediated pathways during antigen presentation between T cells and DCs or macrophages, leading to modulation of immune cell function. Expand
Evolutional study on acetylcholine expression.
It is suggested that ACh has been expressed in organisms from the beginning of life, functioning as a local mediator as well as a neurotransmitter in more complex multicellular organisms. Expand
The non-neuronal cholinergic system of human skin.
- H. Kurzen, I. Wessler, C. Kirkpatrick, K. Kawashima, S. Grando
- Biology, Medicine
- Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und…
- 1 February 2007
In human skin both resident and transiently residing cells are part of the extra- or non-neuronal cholinergic system, creating a highly complex and interconnected cosmos in which acetylcholine (ACh)… Expand