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The K+/Cl− co-transporter KCC2 renders GABA hyperpolarizing during neuronal maturation
TLDR
It is shown that, in pyramidal neurons of the rat hippocampus, the ontogenetic change in GABAA-mediated responses from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing is coupled to a developmental induction of the expression of the neuronal Cl−-extruding K+/Cl − co-transporter, KCC2 (ref. 7).
Cation–chloride co-transporters in neuronal communication, development and trauma
TLDR
The cation-chloride co-transporters (CCCs) have been identified as important regulators of neuronal Cl- concentration, and recent work indicates that CCCs play a key role in shaping GABA- and glycine-mediated signaling, influencing not only fast cell-to-cell communication but also various aspects of neuronal development, plasticity and trauma.
Cation-Chloride Cotransporters and Neuronal Function
TLDR
The rapidly expanding work on CCCs promotes the understanding of fundamental mechanisms that control brain development and functions under normal and pathophysiological conditions.
Ionic basis of GABAA receptor channel function in the nervous system
  • K. Kaila
  • Biology, Medicine
    Progress in Neurobiology
  • 1 March 1994
Abbreviations
Infraslow oscillations modulate excitability and interictal epileptic activity in the human cortex during sleep.
TLDR
These findings suggest that the infraslow oscillations represent a slow, cyclic modulation of cortical gross excitability, providing also a putative mechanism for the as yet enigmatic aggravation of epileptic activity during sleep.
Mechanism of Activity-Dependent Downregulation of the Neuron-Specific K-Cl Cotransporter KCC2
TLDR
It is shown that sustained interictal-like activity in hippocampal slices downregulates KCC2 mRNA and protein expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which leads to a reduced capacity for neuronal Cl- extrusion.
Perturbed Chloride Homeostasis and GABAergic Signaling in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
TLDR
It is observed that all cells that were hyperpolarized during interictal events were immunopositive for KCC2, whereas the majority of depolarized cells were immunonegative.
BDNF-induced TrkB activation down-regulates the K+–Cl− cotransporter KCC2 and impairs neuronal Cl− extrusion
TLDR
It is shown that exposure of rat hippocampal slice cultures and acute slices to exogenous BDNF or neurotrophin-4 produces a TrkB-mediated fall in the neuron-specific K+–Cl− cotransporter KCC2 mRNA and protein, as well as a consequent impairment in neuronal Cl− extrusion capacity.
Cation-chloride cotransporters in neuronal development, plasticity and disease
TLDR
This work has shown that one family of ion transporters, cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), and in particular K+–Cl− cOTransporter 2 (KCC2), have seminal roles in shaping GABAergic signalling and neuronal connectivity.
Phase Synchrony among Neuronal Oscillations in the Human Cortex
TLDR
It is demonstrated, using magnetoencephalography, that robust cross-frequency phase synchrony is present in the human cortex among oscillations with frequencies from 3 to 80 Hz and that it is modulated by cognitive task demands.
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