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First-pass effect of morphine in rats.
TLDR
The pharmacokinetic parameters of 3H-morphine were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats by comparing the plasma concentrations after oral, intravenous and intraportal administration and found that approximately two-thirds of the overall first-pass effect of morphine is due to extraction and/or metabolism in the intestine and the remaining one-third by the liver.
Pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol after intravenous administration in rats.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method to determine [6]-gingerol, a pungent constituent of ginger, in rat plasma was developed and a pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats.
Effects of urethane anesthesia and age on organ blood flow in rats measured by hydrogen gas clearance method.
TLDR
The applicability of the hydrogen gas clearance method to examine the effect of age on organ or tissue blood flow in rats was discussed, and organs with relatively high sensitivity to aging were the stomach, jejunum and kidney.
Pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol after intravenous administration in rats with acute renal or hepatic failure.
TLDR
Investigation of the pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol in rats with acute renal failure induced by bilateral nephrectomy and those with acute hepatic failureinduced by a single oral administration of carbon tetrachloride shows that the drug is eliminated partly by the liver.
pKa determination of verapamil by liquid-liquid partition.
TLDR
The pKa was determined by measuring the partition coefficient of verapamil between n-heptane and aqueous buffer solution at various pH values and was in good agreement with that determined by UV spectrophotometry.
Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3: a novel candidate for food-drug interaction.
TLDR
Findings show that caffeic acid has inhibitory potential against hOAT1 and hOat3, suggesting that renal excretion of their substrates could be affected in patients consuming a diet including caffeic Acid.
Stereoselective inhibitory effect of flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen on human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3
TLDR
Uptake of p‐aminohippurate by hOAT1 was inhibited by each enantiomer of the three NSAIDs, and the inhibitory effect was superior in each (S)‐enantiomer around 10 µ m, which represents the stereoselective inhibitory potencies of flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen on hOat1.
Effect of age on gastrointestinal and hepatic first‐pass effects of levodopa in rats
TLDR
The present age‐dependence in the oral systemic availability of this drug between adult (11 weeks) and aged (52 to 104 weeks) rats was found to be similar to the tendency that has been reported between normal adult subjects and aged patients with Parkinson's disease.
Transepithelial permeation of tolbutamide across the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2.
TLDR
Results suggest that apical-to-basolateral transport of tolbutamide across the Caco-2 cell monolayers is mediated by the pH-dependent specific system, presumably shared with other organic anions such as benzoic acid.
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