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Wortmannin as a unique probe for an intracellular signalling protein, phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
Wortmannin is a fungal metabolite that so far has been shown to act as a selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. It can therefore be used to investigate the convergence between two majorExpand
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Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity.
Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of mammalian host immune responses to microbial invasion suggest that the first line of defense against microbes is the recognition ofExpand
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A Novel Cyclohexene Derivative, Ethyl (6R)-6-[N-(2-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)sulfamoyl]cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate (TAK-242), Selectively Inhibits Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Cytokine Production
Proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and NO play pivotal roles in various inflammatory diseases. To combat inflammatory diseases successfully, regulation of proinflammatory mediator productionExpand
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Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Fc gamma receptor signaling.
Wortmannin, a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (Okada, T., Sakuma, L., Fukui, Y., Hazeki, O., and Ui, M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3563-3567), prevented FcExpand
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Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis.
Spirulina platensis is a cyanobacterial species that is surmised to potentiate the immune system leading to suppression of cancer development and viral infection. Here, we identified the molecularExpand
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Analysis of binding site for the novel small‐molecule TLR4 signal transduction inhibitor TAK‐242 and its therapeutic effect on mouse sepsis model
Background and purpose:  TAK‐242, a novel synthetic small‐molecule, suppresses production of multiple cytokines by inhibiting Toll‐like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling. In this study, we investigated theExpand
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C5a controls TLR-induced IL-10 and IL-12 production independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
The complement system is a classic central player in innate immunity. Most pathogens activate both complement and the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. Therefore, to provide a more comprehensiveExpand
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Enhancement of chemotactic peptide-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and its relation to the cytokine-mediated priming of neutrophil
Incubation of human neutrophils with a chemotactic peptide [N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP)] gave rise to an increase in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, phosphorylation ofExpand
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Toll‐like receptor‐mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin via MyD88‐dependent and ‐independent pathways
Toll‐like receptor (TLR)‐mediated recognition of pathogens represents one of the most important mechanisms of innate immunity. A proximal signaling event of TLR is the direct binding of an adaptorExpand
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IRAK-4-dependent degradation of IRAK-1 is a negative feedback signal for TLR-mediated NF-kappaB activation.
The activation of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 is a key event in the transmission of signals from Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The catalytic activity of the protein kinase is notExpand
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