African populations and the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA.
The African origin hypothesis of human mtDNA evolution is supported by two statistical tests and two hypervariable segments of mtDNA were sequenced from 189 people of diverse geographic origin, including 121 native Africans.
Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories.
- K. Hawkes, J. O'connell, N. Jones, H. Alvarez, E. Charnov
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 3 February 1998
This hypothesis also accounts for the authors' late maturity, small size at weaning, and high fertility, and has implications for past human habitat choice and social organization and for ideas about the importance of extended learning and paternal provisioning in human evolution.
Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals
- K. Hawkes
Hadza Women's Time Allocation, Offspring Provisioning, and the Evolution of Long Postmenopausal Life Spans
Extended provisioning of offspring and long postmenopausal life spans are characteristic of all modern humans but no other primates. These traits may have evolved in tandem. Analysis of relationships…
Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity
- K. Hawkes
- BiologyAmerican Journal of Human Biology
- 1 May 2003
Using modern humans and chimpanzees to represent, respectively, genus Homo and australopithecines, two corollaries of the grandmother hypothesis are focused on: that ancestral age‐specific fertility declines persisted in the authors' genus, while 2) senescence in other aspects of physiological performance slowed down.
Why Hunter-Gatherers Work: An Ancient Version of the Problem of Public Goods [and Comments and Reply]
People who hunt and gather for a living share some resources more widely than others. A favored hypothesis to explain the differential sharing is that giving up portions of large, unpredictable…
why hunters gather: optimal foraging and the Aché of eastern Paraguay
This paper analyzes the foraging behavior of the Ache of eastern Paraguay and concludes that it is consistent with predictions derived from optimal foraging models, and infer that these very general models will continue to prove useful in explaining variation in hunter-gatherer subsistence patterns throughout time and space.
Grandmothering and the evolution of homo erectus.
An alternative scenario is developed, that climate-driven adjustments in female foraging and food sharing practices, possibly involving tubers, favored significant changes in ancestral life history, morphology, and ecology leading to the appearance, spread and persistence of H. erectus.
Showing off, handicap signaling, and the evolution of men's work
The hypothesis that this unique male subsistence contribution may have evolved as hunting large animals became a focus of competitive display is explored.
Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: big game, common goods, foraging goals and the evolution of the human diet.
- K. Hawkes, J. O'connell, N. Jones
- EconomicsPhilosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
- 29 November 1991
Experimental data is reported showing that hunters would reduce their mean rates if they included small animals in the array they target, and finding that an exclusive focus on large game with extensive sharing is not the optimal strategy for hunters concerned with maximizing their own chances of eating meat.