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Treg induction by a rationally selected mixture of Clostridia strains from the human microbiota
Using a rational approach to isolate CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg)-cell-inducing bacterial strains from the human indigenous microbiota may allow for tailored therapeutic manipulation of human immune disorders.
Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells
It is shown that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells in mice and ameliorated the development of colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4+ CD45RBhi T cells in Rag1−/− mice.
Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate
It is proposed that acetate produced by protective bifidobacteria improves intestinal defence mediated by epithelial cells and thereby protects the host against lethal infection.
M-Sec promotes membrane nanotube formation by interacting with Ral and the exocyst complex
It is reported that a mammalian protein, M-Sec, induces de novo formation of numerous membrane protrusions extending from the plasma membrane, some of which tether onto adjacent cells and subsequently form TNT-like structures.
The microbiota regulates type 2 immunity through RORγt+ T cells
It is reported that microbiota-induced Tregs express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt and differentiate along a pathway that also leads to TH17 cells, and acts as a key factor in balancing immune responses at mucosal surfaces.
Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH+ bacteria by M cells initiates mucosal immune response
GP2 is a previously unrecognized transcytotic receptor on M cells for type-I-piliated bacteria and is a prerequisite for the mucosal immune response to these bacteria, which could provide a new target for the development of M-cell-targeted mucosal vaccines.
A novel subset of mouse NKT cells bearing the IL-17 receptor B responds to IL-25 and contributes to airway hyperreactivity
- Asuka Terashima, H. Watarai, M. Taniguchi
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 24 November 2008
A novel subset of natural killer T cells that expresses the interleukin 17 receptor B for IL-25 and is essential for the induction of AHR is identified, suggesting that IL-17RB+ CD4+ NKT cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma.
Gut microbiota-generated metabolites in animal health and disease.
The different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways are described.
Cell Differentiation Is a Key Determinant of Cathelicidin LL-37/Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein 18 Expression by Human Colon Epithelium
It is concluded that differentiated human colon epithelium expresses LL-37/hCAP18 as part of its repertoire of innate defense molecules and that the distribution and regulated expression of LL- 37/h CAP18 in the colon differs markedly from that of other enteric antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins.
Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori.
Data indicate that H. pylori up-regulates production of LL-37/hCAP18 by gastric epithelium and suggest this cathelicidin contributes to determining the balance between host mucosal defense and H.pylori survival mechanisms that govern chronic infection with this gastric pathogen.