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The genetic history of Ice Age Europe
Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from
Human cranial anatomy and the differential preservation of population history and climate signatures.
TLDR
Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics methods indicate that neurocranial and temporal bone shape track neutral genetic distances, while facial shape reflects climate; centroid size shows a weak association with climatic variables; and relative position/orientation of cranial regions does not appear correlated with any of these factors.
New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens
TLDR
A mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.
Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour
TLDR
The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals.
The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe
TLDR
It is shown that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
Climate Signatures in the Morphological Differentiation of Worldwide Modern Human Populations
TLDR
The Fst analysis suggest that selection to climate is largely restricted to groups living in extremely cold environments, including Northeast Asia, North America, and Northern Europe, though each of these regions appears to have arrived at their morphology through distinct adaptive pathways.
Climate-related variation of the human nasal cavity.
TLDR
The observed climate-related shape changes are functionally consistent with an increase in contact between air and mucosal tissue in cold-dry climates through greater turbulence during inspiration and a higher surface-to-volume ratio in the upper nasal cavity.
Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus
TLDR
The shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque is described and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology is described, suggesting that meat consumption contributed to substantial variation within Neanderthal microbiota.
Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods
TLDR
Analysis of mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide data sets from three individuals obtained from Egyptian mummies reveal that ancient Egyptians shared more ancestry with Near Easterners than present-day Egyptians who received additional sub-Saharan admixture in more recent times.
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