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Tranexamic acid: a review of its use in surgery and other indications.
The drug reduces postoperative blood losses and transfusion requirements in a number of types of surgery, with potential cost and tolerability advantages over aprotinin, and appears to reduce rates of mortality and urgent surgery in patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
Tacrolimus. An update of its pharmacology and clinical efficacy in the management of organ transplantation.
Tacrolimus provides the clinician with an effective option for patients requiring immunosuppression and, with a different tolerability and efficacy profile to cyclosporin, it will better allow the tailoring of therapy to meet the needs of individual patients.
Fluoxetine: a review of its therapeutic potential in the treatment of depression associated with physical illness.
Fluoxetine has shown superior efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of depression in patients with HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus or stroke; however, it has not significantly improved depressive symptoms versus placebo in patientsWith cancer, and is safer in overdose than TCAs and monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Levofloxacin: a review of its use in the treatment of bacterial infections in the United States.
In patients with mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin 500mg once daily for 7-14 days achieved clinical and bacteriological response rates similar to those with comparator agents, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clarithromycin, azithromycus, ceftriaxone and/ or cefuroxime axetil and gatifloxACin.
Escitalopram : a review of its use in the management of major depressive and anxiety disorders.
Escitalopram is a highly selective inhibitor for the serotonin transporter, ameliorates depressive symptoms in patients with MDD at half the RS-citaloprams dosage, has a rapid onset of symptom improvement and has a predictable tolerability profile of generally mild adverse events.
Olanzapine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in the management of schizophrenia and related psychoses.
If the long term tolerability profile of olanzapine is confirmed, the drug should provide a valuable therapeutic alternative in the management of schizophrenia and related psychoses and its place relative to other atypical antipsychotics remain to be determined.
Cisapride. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use as a prokinetic agent in gastrointestinal motility disorders.
Should future results support preliminary evidence of comparable efficacy to metoclopramide, domperidone and ranitidine (in oesophagitis), cisapride with its favourable tolerability profile should claim a prominent position in the therapy of patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders.
Gabapentin. A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical potential in epilepsy.
Gabapentin provides notable benefit, reducing seizure frequency by > or = 50% in 18 to 28% of patients with refractory partial seizures, as shown in 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Cyclosporin: an updated review of the pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability of a microemulsion-based formulation (neoral)1 in organ transplantation.
The introduction of cyclosporin microemulsion has consolidated the place of the drug as a mainstay of therapy in all types of solid organ transplantation and savings in direct healthcare costs in kidney or liver transplantation are shown, although studies incorporating indirect costs or expressing costs in terms of therapeutic outcomes are currently unavailable.
Valsartan. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in essential hypertension.
Valsartan is an effective treatment for mild to moderate essential hypertension and may be particularly useful in patients who experience persistent cough during ACE inhibitor therapy.