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Fetal Exposures to Sound and Vibroacoustic Stimulation
Sounds in the environment of a pregnant woman penetrate the tissues and fluids surrounding the fetal head and stimulate the inner ear through a bone conduction route. The sounds available to theExpand
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Sound Levels in the Human Uterus
Objective: We sought to determine the degree to which noises and voices are attenuated or enhanced as they pass into the uterus. Methods: In eight parturients, a hydrophone in the uterus was used toExpand
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The Acoustic Environment and Physiological Responses of the Fetus
The acoustic environment of the fetus is composed of continuous cardiovascular, respiratory, and intestinal sounds that are punctuated by isolated, shorter bursts during maternal body movements andExpand
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The perception of speech sounds recorded within the uterus of a pregnant sheep.
The intelligibility of speech stimuli recorded within the uterus of a pregnant sheep was determined perceptually using a group of untrained judges. The intrauterine sound environment of the ewe wasExpand
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Electrocortical and heart rate response during vibroacoustic stimulation in fetal sheep.
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to study effects of vibroacoustic stimuli on electrocortical activity and heart rate changes in fetal sheep in utero. STUDY DESIGN Seven chronically instrumented near-termExpand
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Relationship between outer ear resonance and permanent noise-induced hearing loss.
INTRODUCTION Prolonged exposure to noise produces permanent hearing loss in the frequency region centered around 4,000 Hz despite differences in the spectral and temporal characteristics of theExpand
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Combined effects of adrenalectomy and noise exposure on compound action potentials, endocochlear potentials and endolymphatic potassium concentrations
The effects of removal of endogenous corticosteroids via bilateral adrenalectomy in combination with noise exposure (30 min at 100 dB) were determined by recording compound action potential (CAP) andExpand
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Fetal hearing: characterization of the stimulus and response.
Before sounds originating outside the abdomen of pregnant women can reach the inner ear of the fetus, they must first pass through the tissues and fluids surrounding the fetal head. Low-frequencyExpand
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Effects of intense noise exposure on fetal sheep auditory brain stem response and inner ear histology.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate, in two separate experiments, the effects of intense noise exposures delivered to fetal sheep in utero during a time of rapid auditory development. DESIGN In the firstExpand
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Characteristics of the fetal sheep sound environment.
  • K. Gerhardt
  • Medicine
  • Seminars in perinatology
  • 1 October 1989
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