Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures
- D. Black, S. Cummings, K. Ensrud
- MedicineThe Lancet
- 7 December 1996
Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
- S. Cummings, M. Nevitt, T. Vogt
- MedicineNew England Journal of Medicine
- 23 March 1995
Women with multiple risk factors and low bone density have an especially high risk of hip fracture and maintaining body weight, walking for exercise, avoiding long-acting benzodiazepines, minimizing caffeine intake, and treating impaired visual function are among the steps that may decrease the risk.
Reduction of Vertebral Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Raloxifene: Results From a 3-year Randomized Clinical Trial
- B. Ettinger, D. Black, P. Lips
It is indicated that raloxifene treatment over 3 years not only preserves bone mass but also lowers the risk of new vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, regardless of whether they have had fractures before starting treatment.
Effects of continuing or stopping alendronate after 5 years of treatment: the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX): a randomized trial.
- D. Black, A. Schwartz, S. Cummings
- 27 December 2006
The results suggest that for many women, discontinuation of alendronate for up to 5 years does not appear to significantly increase fracture risk, however, women at very high risk of clinical vertebral fractures may benefit by continuing beyond 5 years.
The effects of parathyroid hormone and alendronate alone or in combination in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
- D. Black, S. Greenspan, C. Rosen
- Medicine, BiologyNew England Journal of Medicine
- 25 September 2003
Changes in the volumetric density of trabecular bone, the cortical volume at the hip, and levels of markers of bone turnover suggest that the concurrent use of alendronate may reduce the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone.
Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation…
- B. Ettinger, D. Black, S. Cummings
- 18 August 1999
In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, raloxifene increases bone mineral density in the spine and femoral neck and reduces risk of vertebral fracture and was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer.
Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women.
- K. Ensrud, S. Ewing, S. Cummings
- MedicineArchives of Internal Medicine
- 25 February 2008
The simple SOF index predicts risk of falls, disability, fracture, and death as well as the more complex CHS index and may provide a useful definition of frailty to identify older women at risk of adverse health outcomes in clinical practice.
Older women with diabetes have an increased risk of fracture: a prospective study.
- A. Schwartz, D. Sellmeyer, S. Cummings
- MedicineJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
It is indicated that diabetes is a risk factor for hip, proximal humerus, and foot fractures among older women, suggesting that fracture prevention efforts should be a consideration in the treatment of diabetes.
Frailty: implications for clinical practice and public health
- E. Hoogendijk, J. Afilalo, K. Ensrud, P. Kowal, G. Onder, L. Fried
- MedicineThe Lancet
- 12 October 2019
BMD at Multiple Sites and Risk of Fracture of Multiple Types: Long‐Term Results From the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
- K. Stone, D. Seeley, S. Cummings
- MedicineJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
- 1 November 2003
Almost all fracture types to be related to low BMD are found, and the overall proportion of fractures attributable toLow BMD is modest.