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Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algalExpand
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Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses
Cortical gamma oscillations (20-80 Hz) predict increases in focused attention, and failure in gamma regulation is a hallmark of neurological and psychiatric disease. Current theory predicts thatExpand
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Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance
Synchronized oscillations and inhibitory interneurons have important and interconnected roles within cortical microcircuits. In particular, interneurons defined by the fast-spiking phenotype andExpand
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Optogenetics in Neural Systems
Both observational and perturbational technologies are essential for advancing the understanding of brain function and dysfunction. But while observational techniques have greatly advanced in theExpand
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CREB Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation: A Ca2+- and Stimulus Duration–Dependent Switch for Hippocampal Gene Expression
While changes in gene expression are critical for many brain functions, including long-term memory, little is known about the cellular processes that mediate stimulus-transcription coupling atExpand
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Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems
Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address thisExpand
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Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction
Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance)Expand
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Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons have important roles in adaptive and pathological brain functions related to reward and motivation. However, it is unknown whether subpopulations of VTAExpand
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Phasic Firing in Dopaminergic Neurons Is Sufficient for Behavioral Conditioning
Rewarding Bursts of Dopamine Dopaminergic neurons are thought to be involved in the cognitive and hedonic underpinnings of motivated behaviors. However, it is still unclear whether dopaminergicExpand
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Genetic dissection of an amygdala microcircuit that gates conditioned fear
The role of different amygdala nuclei (neuroanatomical subdivisions) in processing Pavlovian conditioned fear has been studied extensively, but the function of the heterogeneous neuronal subtypesExpand
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