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Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algalExpand
Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses
The timing of a sensory input relative to a gamma cycle determined the amplitude and precision of evoked responses and provided the first causal evidence that distinct network activity states can be induced in vivo by cell-type-specific activation. Expand
Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance
Optogenetics opens the door to a new kind of informational analysis of brain function, permitting quantitative delineation of the functional significance of individual elements in the emergent operation and function of intact neural circuitry. Expand
CREB Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation: A Ca2+- and Stimulus Duration–Dependent Switch for Hippocampal Gene Expression
Two important Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-regulated mechanisms in hippocampal neurons are found: a CaM kinase cascade involving nuclear CaMKIV and a calcineurin-dependent regulation of nuclear protein phosphatase 1 activity. Expand
Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems
It is shown that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease. Expand
Optogenetics in Neural Systems
A primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience is provided, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations. Expand
Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction
Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30–80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans. Expand
Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area
It is established that distinct VTA circuits generate reward and aversion, and thereby provides a new framework for understanding the circuit basis of adaptive and pathological motivated behaviours. Expand
Genetic dissection of an amygdala microcircuit that gates conditioned fear
Molecular genetic approaches are used to map the functional connectivity of a subpopulation of GABA-containing neurons, located in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CEl), which express protein kinase C-δ (PKC- δ) and define an inhibitory microcircuit in CEl that gates CEm output to control the level of conditioned freezing. Expand
Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
These findings establish a critical role for basal ganglia circuitry in the bidirectional regulation of motor behaviour and indicate that modulation of direct-pathway circuitry may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for ameliorating parkinsonian motor deficits. Expand